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MASS, SALT, AND HEAT TRANSPORT 
IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC 



Louis Sherfesee III 



NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 

Monterey, California 






THESIS 






MASS, SALT, AND HEAT TRANSPORT 






IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC 






by 






Louis Sherfesee III 






September 1978 




Thesis 


Advisor: G. H. 


Jung 



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4. TITLE ( and Subtitle) 

Mass, Salt, and Heat Transport 
in the South Pacific 



S. TYPE OF REPORT a PERIOO COVERED 

Master's Thesis; 
September 1978 



«. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 



7. AUTHORS 

Louis Sherfesee III 



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Naval Postgraduate School 
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September 1973 



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IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 



IS. KEY WOROS (Contlmm on nwmrmo tidm II nocmmmmtr and Identity by block number) 

South Pacific Ocean, general circulation, heat transport, 
mass transport, salt transport, geostrophic ocean currents, 
level of no motion. 



L 



20. ABSTRACT (Continue on rovoroo eld* II nocmmmary —4 Idmntltr by block number) 

Utilizing data from a four month period CSC0RPI0 Expedition, 
1967), an analysis was made of the various characteristics of 
the South Pacific Ocean. 

This investigation was based on the primary assumption that 
the geostrophic approximation was valid. A level of no motion 
was established at 762m and 1203m for the latitudinal sections 
of 23 and 43° respectively, which satisfied mass and salt 



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continuity requirements . Comprehensive temperature and 
salinity data extended from the western boundary to the 
eastern boundary of the South Pacific Ocean, and from the 
sea surface to the sea floor. 

Net meridional mass , salt and heat transport values 
were calculated dependent on a selected level of no motion 
for each of the latitudinal sections. These transport 
values were then attributed to specific water masses . ' The 
current circulation for the Upper Layer was determined to 
be anticyclonic while the Bottom Layer was cyclonic. The 
Upper Layer had a net northern transport at both latitudes , 
while the Intermediate Layer had a net southern transport 
at 2 8 S and a northern transport at 4 3 S. The Deep Layer 
had a net southern transport along both latitudes with 
the Bottom Layer having a net northward transport . 

Along both latitude lines , there was determined a net 
northward heat flow of 33 and 77 x lO- 1 -^ cal/sec for the 
28°S and 43°S latitudinal sections. Given the initial 
assumptions made, this slight northward heat transport 
is probably within the range of error for this study. 



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Approved for public release ; distribution unlimited 

Mass , Salt , and Heat Transport 
in the South Pacific 



by 



Louis Sherfesee III 
Lieutenant , United States Navy 
B.S. (Oceanography), Univ. of Washington; 
B.S. (Geology), Univ. of Washington, 1969 



Submitted in partial fulfillment of the 
requirements for the degree of 



MASTER OF SCIENCE IN METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY 



from the 

NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 
September 19 78 



ABSTRACT 

Utilizing data from a four month period (SCORPIO Expedi- 
tion, 1967) an analysis was made of the various characteris- 
tics of the South Pacific Ocean. 

This investigation was based on the primary assumption 
that the geostrophic approximation was valid. A level of 
no motion was established at 762m and 1203m for the latitu- 
dinal sections of 28 S and 43 S respectively, which satisfied 
mass and salt continuity requirements. Comprehensive tempera- 
ture and salinity data extended from the western boundary 
to the eastern boundary of the South Pacific Ocean, and from 
the sea surface to the sea floor. 

Net meridional mass , salt and heat transport values 
were calculated dependent on a selected level of no motion 
for each of the latitudinal sections . These transport 
values were then attributed to specific water masses . The 
current circulation for the Upper Layer was determined to 
be anticyclonic while the Bottom Layer was cyclonic. The 
Upper Layer had a net northern transport at both latitudes , 
while the Intermediate Layer had a net southern transport 
at 23 S and a northern transport at 43°S. The Deep Layer 
had a net southern transport along both latitudes with 
the Bottom Layer having a net northward transport . 

Along both latitude lines , there was determined a net 

12 
northward heat flow of 33 and 77 x 10 cal/sec for the 

28 S and 43 S latitudinal sections. Given the initial 

assumptions made, this slight northward heat transport is 

probably within the range of error for this study. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

I. INTRODUCTION ------------------10 

II. BACKGROUND -------------------13 

A. ENERGY TRANSPORT --------------13 

B. THE LEVEL OF NO MOTION -----------14 

III. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ------------19 

IV. PROCEDURE -------------------22 

A. DATA SOURCES ----------------22 

B. COMPUTATION OF VELOCITIES, TRANSPORT 

OF MASS, SALT CONTENT AND HEAT -------25 

C. IDENTIFICATION OF WATER MASSES ------- 29 

D. THE CIRCULATION OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC - - - - 38 

E. DETERMINATION OF UPPER, INTERMEDIATE 

AND DEEP/BOTTOM WATER CIRCULATION ----- 44 

V. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS ------------- 47 

A. THE LEVEL OF NO MOTION -----------47 

B. MASS AND SALT TRANSPORT ----------47 

C. HEAT TRANSPORT ---------------52 

D. OCEANIC EDDY CIRCULATION ----------59 

E. CALCULATED CIRCULATION PATTERN -------61 

1. Upper Circulation -_-__-__-__ 61 

2. Intermediate Circulation --------67 

3. Deep Circulation ------------67 

4. Bottom Circulation -----------70 

VI. CONCLUSIONS ------------------73 



APPENDIX A 
APPENDIX B 
APPENDIX C 



Oceanographic Stations 
Geostrophic Data - - • 



Geostrophic Point Depth 
Current Velocities - - 



75 
79 

116 



APPENDIX D: End Point Data ------------- 12 7 

BIBLIOGRAPHY --------------------- 130 

INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST -------------- 134 



LIST OF TABLES 



I. Muromtsev Water Mass Parameters --------34 

II. Level of No Motion 28°S ------------ 1+8 

III. Level of No Motion *+3°S ------------1+9 

IV. Level of No Motion Use % 28°S ---------50 

V. Level of No Motion Use % 43°S ---------51 

VI. Total Net Transport 2 8°S -----------53 

VII. Total Net Transport 43°S ----------- 54 

VIII. Net Heat Transport 28°S and 43°S -------56 

IX. Layer Heat Transports -------------58 



LIST OF FIGURES 

1. SCORPIO Transits along 28°S and 43°S ------ 23 

2. USNS ELTANIN ------------------24 

3. Muromtsev's Surface Water Mass Location ----- 31 

4. Muromtsev's Subsurface Water Mass Location - - - 32 

5. Muromtsev's Intermediate/Deep Water 

Mass Location ------------------33 

6. Temperature/Salinity Diagram for Muromtsev 

Water Mass Classification ------------35 

7. Temperature /Salinity Diagram for Modified 
Muromtsev Water Mass Classification -------36 

8. Cross Sectional Area along 2 8°S ---------39 

9. Cross Sectional Area along 43°S --------- 40 

10. Bottom Water Circulation Theory ---------43 

11. New Zealand Surface Circulation with Eddy - - - - 60 

12. Mass Transport 28°S (West Section) -------62 

13. Mass Transport 28°S (East Section) -------63 

14. Mass Transport 43°S (West Section) -------64 

15. Mass Transport 43°S (East Section) -------65 

16. Upper Layer Mass Transport _-___-__--_ 66 

17. Intermediate Layer Mass Transport --------68 

18. Deep Layer Mass Transport ------------69 

19. Bottom Layer Mass Transport -----------71 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The author wishes to thank Dr. Glenn H. Jung for his 
acceptance , patience and guidance in the preparation of 
this thesis and Dr. Joseph J. Von Schwind for his construc- 
tive review of the text. 

The author also wishes to thank Lt . James R. Mason, 
USN for his time, assistance and objective appraisals and 
also Capt. Earle McCormick, USAF for his computer exper- 
tise . 

Finally, the author wishes to thank his wife, Carol E. 
Sherf esee , without whose assistance, understanding, 
patience and faith this thesis project could not have 
been accomplished. 



I. INTRODUCTION 

The heat budget of the earth is the result of a net sur- 
plus of solar radiation received in the tropics , together 
with a net loss of heat in the polar regions. Since the 
temperatures of the tropics and the polar regions do not 
progressively get warmer and colder respectively, it was 
assumed that there was a poleward transport of heat from the 
equatorial area ( Newmann and Pierson, 1966). This heat 
transport was a method of energy transfer. It was assumed 
that the bedrock structure of the earth accounted for negli- 
gible heat transfer through conduction (Sverdrup et_ al. , 
1942). The earth's atmosphere and world ocean were then 
assumed to be the primary energy transfer agents. 

Coker (1947) wrote that the chief sources of heat for 
the sea were heat from the atmosphere by contact, absorption 
of radiation and condensation of water vapor. He also men- 
tioned conduction through the ocean bottom, heat due to 
frictional currents and heat released through chemical and 
biological processes as negligible sources. 

Neumann and Pierson (1966) in quoting Maury (1856) 
wrote: "The aqueous portion of our planet preserves its 
beautiful system of circulation. By it heat and warmth are 
dispersed to the extratropical regions ; clouds and rains 
are sent to refresh the dry land; and by it cooling streams 
are brought from polar seas to temper the heat of the 



10 



torrid zone. To distribute moisture over the surface of the 
earth, and to temper the climate of different latitudes, it 
would seem, are the two great offices assigned by their 
Creator to the ocean and the air." 

Dietrich (1963) stated that the external processes of 
heat transfer between ocean and atmosphere, as well as the 
internal processes of heat conduction in the ocean, are 
known only in rough outline . 

At one time, the ocean had been thought of as the primary 
method of transfer. For over a century, there has been con- 
troversy over which system, air or sea, is the predominant 
mechanism for energy transport . 

Maury (1856) and Ferrel (1890) emphasized the sea as the 
primary agent. Angstrom (192 5) roughly equated the oceanic 
and atmospheric heat transport. Bjerknes et_ al . (19 33) and 
Sverdrup et a_l. (1942) considered oceanic transport negli- 
gible as compared to that of the atmosphere. Jung (19 52) 
questioned this and then stressed (Jung, 1955) that while 
oceanic transport of sensible heat is less than the atmos- 
pheric sensible and latent heat, it should not be considered 
as negligible. 

It was proposed by Jung (1952) that the oceans with 
their accompanying current systems might be of more impor- 
tance in the transfer of heat energy than thought at the 
time. He suggested that earlier studies such as Sverdrup 
et al . C1942) had considered only the standing horizontal 
eddy, that is the Gulf Stream system with its associated 



11 



return currents, in their calculations. Jung proposed that 
closed vertical circulations in meridional planes could con- 
ceivably transport large quantities of energy, even when 
the velocities involved were minor. Jung followed this in 
19 5 5 with a detailed study in the North Atlantic Ocean which 
determined the heat transported by geostrophic ocean currents . 
Several studies (Budyko, 19 56; Sverdrup , 1957; Bryan, 1962; 
Sellers, 1965; Vander Haar and Oort , 197 3; Baker, 1973) with 
oceanic contribution to meridional transfer have followed, 
but with the exception of Baker, these studies have not 
utilized synoptic or nearly synoptic data for an entire ocean. 

This study utilized a computer program developed by 
Greeson in his 1974 master's thesis. Two coast to coast 
South Pacific Ocean latitude sections obtained by the SCORPIO 
Expedition (1967) were used to determine a general geostrophic 
circulation and net heat flux measurements . 

The geostrophic method provided a means for computing 
the field of relative (geostrophic) motion in a fluid from 
a knowledge of the internal distribution of pressure (Von Arx, 
1962) . 



12 



II. BACKGROUND 

A. ENERGY TRANSPORT 

The discussion of energy transport within either an at- 
mospheric or oceanic medium starts with a general equation 
applicable to all fluid motion, 

(a) (b) (c) (d) 
T" = / CpU + pC 2 /2 + pcf> + P) V dS , (1) 

s 

where T represents the total meridional energy trans- 
ferred normal to a vertical wall encircling the earth at a 
particular latitude, p is density, U is the internal 
energy per unit mass , C is the magnitude of the fluid 
velocity, <J> is the potential energy per unit mass, P is 
the pressure, V is the component of the fluid velocity 
normal to the latitude wall at a given level in either air 
or ocean and dS is the differential area of the wall. 

The total amount of energy transported across a com- 
plete latitudinal circle is composed of the transport due 
to (a) the advection of thermal energy, (b) the transport 
of kinetic energy, (c) the transport of potential energy 
and (d) the rate of work done by pressure forces. 

As compared to the other terms , the transport of 
kinetic energy (b) is negligible (Jung, 1952). 



13 



The transfer of energy in the ocean is carried out by 
the water currents. Geostrophic equilibrium is assumed as 
one method to determine the magnitude of these currents . 
In addition the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium in 
the vertical eliminates term Cc) and (d) from equation (1) 
This then reduces equation CD to the following form: 



T = / p U V dO . (2) 

o / s s ns 



The subscript "s" stands for seawater, and "o" is that part 

of our latitude wall, "S", slicing through the ocean. Now 

neglecting compressibility effects in water, U = C T 

where C is the specific heat at constant pressure of sea 
ps r c 

water, and T is the temperature of sea water. Equation 



(2) may now be written as 



■■/ 



T ' = / p C T V dO . . (3) 
o / s ps s ns 



B. THE LEVEL OF MO MOTION 

The dynamic method of utilizing oceanographic data in- 
cludes the problem of locating a reference level of no 
motion. This reference level is necessary in order to deter- 
mine absolute current velocities. Defant (1961), in discuss- 
ing the difficulty of the problem, reported that the required 
data necessary to determine a zero level was largely lacking. 



14 



There have been several attempts to determine this level of 
no motion as listed in Defant C1961) and Baker (1978). 

One early method was to assume this level was at a great 
depth in the ocean. The logic for this approach was the as- 
sumption that deep ocean waters were uniform with nearly 
horizontal isopycnal (equal density) and isobaric (equal 
pressure) surfaces. Absolute current velocities could be 
determined if the level was placed at a constant great depth. 

Another method, offered by Jacobsen (1916), utilized the 
location of an oxygen minimum in the ocean as an identifier 
of the level of minimum horizontal motion. The reasoning 
behind this method was that the use of oxygen due to oxidation 
of organic matter takes place at all levels ; therefore a min- 
imum oxygen content would represent an area of minimum hori- 
zontal current replenishment. This method has some peculiar 
results which were brought out by various investigators 
(Rossby, 1936; Iselin, 1936; and Dietrich, 1936). In addi- 
tion to unrealistic results , the assumptions of uniform 
distribution of organic matter and oxygen consumption were 
incorrect. This method of minimum oxygen levels necessarily 
coinciding with a level of no motion can be disregarded. 

Parr (1938) considered thickness variation of isopycnal 
surfaces as a deterministic factor of a level of no motion. 
He equated minimal thickness distortion to minimal water 
motion within the layer. 

Fomin (1964) took exception to Parr's method stating 
that the variation of current velocity in the vertical was a 



15 



function not only of isopycnal surface slope, but it also de- 
pended upon the vertical density gradient. Since Parr's 
method ignored the vertical density gradient, it would be 
possible to choose as a layer of no motion an undistorted 
thickness layer which was in reality a region of strong cur- 
rent velocity. 

Hidaka (1940) proposed two different methods for determin- 
ing the level of no motion. His first method was based on 
the salinity distribution. Fomin (.1964) disagreed with this 
method saying that coefficients of turbulent diffusion in a 
layer of no motion did not remain finite as Hidaka had assumed 
and therefore Hidaka 's resultant salinity characteristics bore 
no definite relation to the current velocity field. 

Hidaka * s second method depended on the continuity of 
volume and salt transport and the calculation of the vertical 
distribution of current velocity by the dynamic method. Fomin 
(1964) again took exception with Hidaka in that Hidaka' s sim- 
plification of the continuity equation was not theoretically 
correct and also because this method led to a set of equations 
that could not be solved with the current accuracy of at sea 
measurements . 

Defant (.1941) determined the zero level based on the dif- 
ferences in dynamic depths of isobaric surfaces . Examination 
of dynamic height differences of isobaric surfaces of Atlantic 
station pairs resulted in Defant recognizing a relatively 
thick layer with horizontal uniform depth variation and small 
isobaric surface dynamic depth differences CFomin , 1964). 



16 



Defant related this dynamic depth difference constancy to a 
constant vertical gradient component of current velocity 
within the layer. This layer was assumed to be nearly motion- 
less and considered to directly adjoin the zero motion sur- 
face (Fomin, 19 64). Baker (1978) evaluated the Defant method 
as one of the most reasonable, but stated that resultant cur- 
rent velocities had a low accuracy due to the accumulation 
of errors associated with the dynamic method. 

Sverdrup et al. (1942) developed a method based upon the 
continuity equation; the level of no motion was determined 
by comparison of water mass transport above and below a 
horizontal reference surface. When the mass transport in 
the latitudinal area of study above the reference surface 
was equal and opposite in direction to the net mass transport 
below this surface, the reference surface was then a level of 
no motion. One difficulty with this approach was the require- 
ment for data across the ocean from coast to coast necessary 
for dynamic calculations . 

Stommel (19 56) produced a method for determining the 
level of no motion using Ekman ' s concept of the oceans con- 
sisting of a wind driven surface layer of frictional influence 
and a deeper frictionless geostrophic layer. Surface wind 
stress produced divergence or convergence causing entry or 
exit of water from the subsurface geostrophic frictionless 
layer. This geostrophic layer will then suffer thickness 
changes. Water parcels within this layer will shrink or ex- 
pand as they move poleward, producing a vertical component 



17 



equal to the vertical component at the bottom of the friction- 
al layer produced by wind stress . This matching will occur 
at a level of no motion. 

The final method of this summary is one introduced by 
Stommel and Schott (1977) based on the beta-spiral and a 
determination of the absolute velocity field from density 
data. Their theory was that because the horizontal component 
of velocity rotates with depth, absolute velocities could be 
found from observations of the density field alone. 

This particular study of the Pacific Ocean uses the mass 
and salt continuity method proposed by Sverdrup et_ al. (19 4-2) 
to determine the level of no motion along two latitudinal 
tracks (28°S and 43°S) across the South Pacific. 



III. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 

The problem was to determine the heat energy transported 
by the South Pacific Ocean. To accomplish this objective 
necessitated the obtaining of thermal and salinity data in 
coast-to-coast latitudinal tracks from the surface to as near 
the ocean bottom as possible. It was also necessary to have 
a sufficient comprehension of the circulation pattern of the 
area. 

Energy transfer is accomplished by several processes : 
large-scale advection, smaller scale eddy diffusion, and 
molecular diffusion. The primary mode of transfer is large- 
scale advection with eddy diffusion and molecular diffusion 
contributions being several orders of magnitude smaller. 
This investigation will neglect eddy and molecular diffusion. 

The energy flux across any latitude line in the ocean is 
expressed by equation (3), 



T = / p C T V dO , (3) 

o / s ps s ns 

o 

where the heat transport term determines the total 

energy flux across a vertical cross section of area dO 

within the ocean. The specific heat at constant pressure of 

sea water, C , for this study has been assumed to have the 
' ps ' J 



value of unity 



19 



Velocities were calculated with the formula derived by 
the Helland-Hansen and Sandstrom (190 3) equation, and with 
the procedure from Sverdrup et al. C19M-2). The procedure 
utilizes the assumption of geostrophic equilibrium within 
the ocean. Jung C1955) pointed out that the geostrophic 
balance assumption appears valid for large-scale motion out- 
side the equatorial region. It is therefore applicable for 
the area of this study. 

In order to calculate geostrophic velocity differences 
between consecutive depths and between adjacent pairs of sta- 
tions, dynamic heights were first computed. The equation 



V - V = 10C CD - A ) 
1 2 LA B 



was used, where C = C2nsincf>) _ , ^ is the earth's angular 
speed, is the latitude, L is the horizontal distance be- 
tween stations A and B, and D. and D R are the dynamic 
heights (or depths) of the two stations (Greeson, 1974). 

The reference level or level of no motion must be estab- 
lished prior to using this method. To determine this depth 
level, there must be a zero net transport of both water mass 

and salt across the entire latitudinal slice of ocean, / dO : 

o 



p V dO = 
s ns 



/ 

o 

f P SV 
/ s n 

•J n 



dO = , 
s ' 



'o 
where S here is salinity in parts per thousand, 



20 



The mass balance was the primary tool for determining 
the level of no motion. As will be seen later, however, 
there was little depth difference between levels balancing 
the mass and salt transports. After a level of no motion 
was determined, the heat flux across the associated latitude 
section was calculated. 



21 









IV. PROCEDURE 

A. DATA SOURCES 

This study dealt with the area of the South Pacific Ocean 
shown in Figure 1. Two latitudinal oceanographic sections 
were supplied by the SCORPIO Expedition, USNS Eltanin Cruises 
28 and 29, 12 March - 31 July 1967 CWHOI Reference 69-56). 
The two latitude sections were at approximately 2 8 15' S and 
43°15'S. Figure 2 is a photograph of the USNS ELTANIN which 
collected the oceanographic data. In planning the SCORPIO 
Expedition, the two east-west tracks had been selected for 
the following reasons : "observations of good quality in the 
central area were scarce and in order to have a general know- 
ledge of the world ocean some attention had to be given to 
this immense area; this area also includes some of the deepest 
of the ocean trenches; and ... the study of deep circulation 
in the world ocean could not proceed without a systematic 
survey of the deep-water characteristics in the South Pacific, 
which is the largest of the world's oceans" (WHO I Reference 
69-56) . 

Cruise 2 8 had an easterly track starting off the east 
coast of Tasmania. Station 1, Cruise 28, was occupied on 
March 12, 1967 and the last station of the track, Station 73, 
on May 3, 1967. Cruise 29 had a westerly track, originating 
off the west coast of Chile, with its first station, number 



22 



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24 



86, occupied on June 4, 1967 and its last station, number 185, 
on July 31, 1967. Since the data were collected in less than 
a five month period, it has been assumed they are simultaneous. 

There are small voids in the cross-sectional latitudinal 
area where data were not taken. These voids existed primarily 
along the ocean bottom where the soundings did not reach, 
and also at the end points of the tracks between the end sta- 
tions and the beach. The deepest sounding data were extended 
all the way to the sea floor directly under that station. 
The method used for extrapolating deep current velocities 
into these ocean bottom regions is described in detail later 
in this thesis, in Section IV B. Regarding the end points, 
the data of the end stations were extended horizontally until 
the beach slope terminated the extension. Appendix D contains 
the end point data. It is shown that these ends of the sec- 
tions contribute negligible amounts to the mass , salt and 
heat transport totals . 

B. COMPUTATION OF VELOCITIES, TRANSPORT OF MASS, 
SALT CONTENT AND HEAT 

There have been limited synoptic velocity measurements 

made in the South Pacific. With the geostrophic equilibrium 

assumption, together with the procedure of Sverdrup et_ al . 

(19 4-2), temperature and salinity data such as that of the 

SCORPIO Expedition may be utilized to determine dynamic height 

and synoptic velocity values for areas of interest. The 

majority of the calculations for this study were performed on 



25 



an IBM-360/67 computer utilizing a basic program developed 
by Greeson (1974). The Greeson program was modified by 
Mason (1978) to evaluate data voids along the sea floor as 
well as to attribute net mass , salt and heat transport be- 
tween individual station pairs and/or along an entire track 
to particular identifiable water masses . 

Greenson's program initially took temperature and 
salinity data at various depths and interpolated them to 
standard depths. Next sigma-t, the specific volume anomaly 
and specific volume were calculated for each standard depth 
Then the equation 



, 6 Z + 5 (Z+AZ) 
o = ~ 



was used to compute an average specific volume anomaly for 
each pair of standard depths for each station. Note that 
6 was the average specific volume anomaly, and 6 V and 

LA 

6, . were the specific volume anomalies at the standard 
depths of Z and Z+AZ . 

Following this, dynamic heights, D , were computed for 
each station. To do this, the dynamic height difference, 
AD , between the standard depths was calculated by 

AD = 6[Z - (Z+AZ)] . 

The dynamic height of each station was produced by a summa- 
tion of the dynamic height differences 



Z AD = D . 
o 



26 



Next, the program calculated the distance, L , between sta- 
tions. This distance varied with latitude and longitude. 
With the calculated station separation, the relative veloc- 
ity between station pairs for each standard depth was com- 
puted using the Helland-Hansen formula. Given relative 
velocities , absolute geostrophic velocities were derived by- 
identifying a level of no motion. This level of no motion 
was defined by absolute geostrophic velocities of zero. 
Density was calculated using the formula: 



1 



STP a STP 

where a q<-np i- s tne specific volume for a particular salinity, 
temperature and pressure. 

This process has produced what was described by Greeson 
(1974) as four corners of a rectangle limited by two oceano- 
graphic stations and two standard depths with four measure- 
ments of temperature, salinity, velocity and density. These 
four sets of measurements were distributed one to each corner 
of the rectangle and then the sets were averaged giving a 
composite value for the bounded area. This area was defined 
by the station separation and the standard depth internal. 
The mass transport for the subject vertical area was com- 
puted given the area density, velocity and area size. Next 
the calculated mass transport was multiplied by the average 
salinity and average absolute temperature. This resulted in 
an area salt flux and heat flux. Summing over the water column 



27 



produced the net mass, salt and heat flux for that pair of 
stations . The program then determined the net transport 
between each pair of standard depths, coast to coast, by 
summing the area values horizontally. A vertical summation 
process gave the total net mass , salt and heat transport 
for the entire latitudinal section. 

The area extending from the deepest standard common depth 
to the bottom was handled in a slightly different manner. The 
vertical area between the sea floor and the deepest common 
depth between adjacent stations was first determined. Next 
it was assumed that the velocity of the sea floor was zero; 
therefore, the average of the deepest common level absolute 
geostrophic velocity and the zero sea floor velocity was ap- 
plied as representative of this bottom area. Mass transport 
in this bottom area was calculated by multiplying this average 
velocity by the vertical area and deepest calculated density. 

To arrive at salt and heat transport, the area mass 
transports were multiplied by the deepest recorded salinity 
and temperature which was assumed to extend on down to the 
sea floor. 

An error may have been introduced in that , between a pair 
of stations , the bottom area water mass was attributed to 
the deepest type parcel of water actually sampled. In other 
words , if the deepest water sampled was an intermediate type 
of water, the void from the sample depth to the sea floor 
would be treated as intermediate water with all associated 
characteristics (i.e., density, current velocity, etc.). 



28 



The level of no motion was determined by setting a con- 
stant depth across the ocean unless interrupted by shoaling 
bathymetry, in which case the closest standard depth to the 
bottom was utilized for that station pair. This constant 
depth across the ocean was then moved vertically to locate 
a level of minimum net mass transport. Once this was estab- 
lished, the level was again moved up and down to determine a 
level of minimum net salt transport. At each of these two 
minimum levels, the heat transport was calculated. Zero 
mass and salt transport values were the desired objective, 
but these were only approximately obtained since the possible 
level of no motion values were taken no closer than at 1- 
meter intervals . 

C. IDENTIFICATION OF WATER MASSES 

One objective of this investigation was for it to be 
somewhat compatible with the studies of Jung (1955), Greeson 
(1974), Baker (1978) and Mason (1978). These studies use a 
general stratification pattern of Upper, Intermediate, and 
Deep/Bottom waters. An appropriate water mass classification 
scheme had to be located and adopted, either verbatim or in a 
modified form. The water mass schemes of Sverdrup et al . (1942), 
Deacon C196 3) and Wyrtki C1966), as reported by Knox (1970), 
Defant (1961), Radzikjovskaya (1965), Stepanov (1965) and 
Muromtsev (196 3) were examined and the scheme of Muromtsev 
was selected as being the most comprehensive for the Pacific, 
especially for the South Pacific. The Muromtsev scheme 



29 



allowed for 14 different South Pacific water masses to be de- 
fined with temperature, salinity and oxygen range limitation, 
although oxygen composition was not used by this author. 
Depth criteria for the different masses was also included. 
Figures 3, 4 and 5 illustrate Muromtsev's water mass areas. 

Table I illustrates the various water masses selected 
from the Muromtsev scheme. After comparing the oceanographic 
station data to the water mass scheme , certain parcels of 
water between identified masses were still unclassified. The 
temperature and salinity ranges of Muromtsev were then ex- 
panded as necessary to classify these transition zones. 
Table I shows this tabulation which is also illustrated in 
Figures 6 and 7 . 

The surface water masses of the South Pacific were found 
between the surface and about 200 meters. They were formed 
by direct interaction with the atmosphere and were subject to 
seasonal variations in characteristics . Of the water masses 
they had the least uniformity and were also subject to contin- 
ental runoff and precipitation. The surface water of the 
South Pacific was composed of six distinct water masses : 
Equatorial Surface Water, Southern Tropic Surface Water, 
Peru Surface Water, South-Central Subtropic Surface Water, 
Surface Water of South Temperate Latitude and Antarctic 
Surface Water. 

The subsurface waters were found between about 150/200m 
and down to 600m in depth. They were formed in the zone of 
subtropical convergence and sinking of surface waters. Also 



30 




40 n 



40s 



140e 180 140w 100w 



Figure 3. Muromtsev's Surface Water Mass Location 




40 n 



40s 



140e 180 140w 100w 



Figure 4-. Muromtsev's Subsurface Water Mass Location 



32 







40 n 



40s 



140e 180 140w 100w 



Figure 5. Muromtsev's Intermediate/Deep Water Mass 
Location 



33 



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Figure 6. Temperature /Salinity Diagram for Muromtsev 
Water Mass Classification 



35 




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Figure 7. Temperature/Salinity Diagram for Modified 
Muromtsev Water Mass Classification 



36 



the influence of winter convection assisted in their formation. 
The subsurface waters had a higher degree of uniformity than 
the surface water. Muromtsev (1963) made the distinction be- 
tween primary waters and secondary waters . Primary waters 
sank directly from the surface and were characterized by semi- 
annual temperature and salinity fluctuations . Secondary waters 
were formed by the mixing of two or more types of surface 
water with no annual changes . Both the two subsurface water 
masses , South Subtropical Subsurface Water and Antarctic Sub- 
surface Water, were considered primary waters. 

The intermediate waters were located between about 400 and 
1500m in depth and were formed in the zone of convergence and 
sinking of surface waters. They can also be formed by the mix- 
ing of two or more water types. Again this category could 
have both primary (slight annual variations) and secondary 
(no annual fluctuations) characteristics. The two intermediate 
water masses in the South Pacific were termed South Pacific 
Intermediate Water (primary) and Equatorial Intermediate Water 
(secondary ) . 

Deep water was situated between roughly 1500m and 4500m 
in depth and was formed by the mixing of three or more water 
types. They were then secondary waters and had a high degree 
of uniformity. Two such water masses were classified for the 
South Pacific, the South Pacific Upper Deep Water and the 
Underlying Deep Water. 

The last major type was the Bottom waters which were 
formed in the high southern latitudes. Two masses were 



37 



classified, the Antarctic Bottom Water and the Pacific Bottom 
Water. Muromtsev (.1963) referred to both of these as second- 
ary water masses . 

The salinity, temperature and approximate depth character- 
istics of these 1"+ waters were compared with each block of 
water bounded by a pair of stations and adjacent standard 
depths. This classified over 99.5% of the parcels. Water 
with the defined temperature and salinity characteristics of 
Peru Surface Water was found on the surface in and around 
New Zealand. The author believes that this water is not the 
same water found off the coast of Peru, but is, in fact, 
formed in the Tasman Sea in a similar manner as in the forma- 
tion of Peru Surface Water. This Pseudo Peru Surface Water 
has been for numerical calculations classified under Pseudo 
Peru Surface Water. 

Figures 8 and 9 illustrate the water masses found along 
the two latitudinal cross sections. 

D. THE CIRCULATION OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC 

The surface circulation of the South Pacific Ocean con- 
sists of two large anticyclonic gyres . One is centered in 
the eastern South Pacific in the neighborhood of 30 S; the 
second gyre of smaller diameter is in the Tasman Sea between 
New Zealand and Australia. Cold low salinity water at the 
higher latitudes flows to the east as the Antarctic Circum- 
polar Current , and driven by strong northwesterly winds , 
moves to the eastern Pacific. There it is deflected to the 
north as the Peru Current, and also to the South Atlantic via 



38 



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40 



the Drake passage. The Peru Current flows along the west 
coast of South America picking up subsurface water through 
upwelling as the Coriolis force deflects water to the left. 
The Peru Current, upon entering the tropics., turns west be- 
coming the South Equatorial Current, where there is exchange 
with intertropical water. Eventually, the waters turn pole- 
ward along the east coast of New Zealand, and along the east 
coast of Australia as the East Australia Current. There is 
evidence that this anticyclonic gyre may extend to depths 
of 2000 meters (Reid, 1973). 

In the Tasman Sea, water cycles in a counterclockwise 
(anticyclonic) path. It travels north along the west coast 
of New Zealand, then west to join the East Australia Current 
for its trip south where it links up with the Antarctic Cir- 
cumpolar Current for an eastward journey. 

Intermediate waters originate in the higher latitudes , 
between 45 S and 55 S, (Newmann and Pierson , 1966) which flow 
north in an anticyclonic cycle. Muromtsev (1963) wrote con- 
cerning the South Pacific intermediate water that its anti- 
cyclonic gyre is larger than that of the surface water as it 
starts at 60 S and crosses the Equator where it involves 
North Pacific intermediate water. The combined intermediate 
waters spread out through the entire ocean. 

Below the intermediate water is the deep water, composed 
of Pacific Ocean water and deep Indian Ocean water of high 
salinity entering south of Australia. 



41 



This wide deep current moves north with some water ascend- 
ing at the equator and returning south, while the remainder 
may move all the way north to the Aleutians before ascending 
and returning south. This southward spreading of Deep Water 
in the South Pacific was supported by Deacon (1927), while 
Neumann and Pierson (1966) attributed to Sverdrup et_ al_. (1942) 
the statement of a Pacific deep water exchange between the two 
hemispheres , with a northern current to the west and southern 
current to the east. 

The deepest water is the bottom water which forms in the 
high southern latitudes by sinking cold surface and subsurface 
waters along the continental slope of Antarctica. Perry and 
Walker (19 77) state that the Weddell Sea is the primary pro- 
duction area of Antarctic Bottom Water which is the lowermost 
mass of water in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, ex- 
tending well north of the equator. 

The circulation between the surface and about 2000 meters 
in the South Pacific is anticyclonic . There is some evidence 
(Warren, 197 3) and at least one theory (Stommel, 19 58) that 
the circulation below 2000 meters and extending to the sea 
floor is cyclonic (.Figure 10 ) . 

To paraphrase Muromtsev (1963), the overall plan of cir- 
culation of Pacific water shows that the principal source 
from which the waters of this ocean are derived is located 
in the high southern latitudes . From here the water spreads 
at all depths through the southern part of the ocean and en- 
ters the northern part by deep and bottom currents . Here the 



42 





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43 



deep water, along with the overlying intermediate and subsur- 
face waters, wells up and forms the top water, while surface 
water sinks into deep southward flowing upper/deep currents. 
Eventually this water exits the Pacific via the Drake Passage 

to the South Atlantic. 

r 

E. DETERMINATION OF UPPER, INTERMEDIATE AND DEEP/BOTTOM 
WATER CIRCULATION 

As discussed in the previous section, the 14 South Pacific 
Ocean water masses described by Muromtsev C196 3) were compared 
against the station measurements . This resulted in ten water 
masses being identified. Next the mass, salt and heat trans- 
ports were determined within each station pair for each water 
parcel. Then the transports were attributed to each of the 
ten water masses plus an unknown mass . That unknown water 
mass, different from the Pseudo Peru Surface Water, was usual- 
ly a coastal surface sample with slightly lower salinity than 
defined, and in any event, it was a negligible quantity. 

The ten water masses identified were: 

Peru Surface Water 

Pseudo Peru Surface Water 

South Central Subtropic Surface Water 

Surface Water of South Temperate Latitudes 

South Subtropical Subsurface Water 

South Pacific Intermediate Water 

South Pacific Upper Deep Water 

Underlying Deep Water 

Antarctic Bottom Water 

Pacific Bottom Water 

In determining a net transport, a negative sign indicates 

southward transport, while a positive sign indicates northward 

transport. Once the net transport for each water mass of each 

station pair was calculated, these values were summed, resulting 



44 



in an overall coast-to-coast net transport of mass , salt and 
heat by water mass type. 

In order to be compatible with Jung C 19 5 5), Baker (1978) 
and Mason (1978), the ten water masses were grouped into 
Upper, Intermediate and Deep/Bottom categories. As will be 
seen later, for the South Pacific Ocean, this may not be the 
most appropriate scheme. 

The Upper category was composed of Peru Surface Water, 
South Central Subtropic Surface Water, Surface Water of South 
Temperate Latitudes, South Subtropical Subsurface Water, the 
Pseudo Peru Surface Water and Unknown Water. 

The intermediate layer was composed solely of South Paci- 
fic Intermediate Water-, and the Deep/Bottom level was made 
up of South Pacific Upper Deep Water, Underlying Deep Water, 
Antarctic Bottom Water and Pacific Bottom Water. 

An attempt was then made to examine general circulation 
information available based on only two zonal tracks sepa- 
rated by approximately 15 of latitude . One procedure here , 
which was unsuccessful, was to plot the absolute velocity 
both in a vertical cross section and on a horizontal plan view, 

Current velocities at certain selected levels CO, 100, 
250, 500, 1000, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000 and 5000 meters) 
were calculated. These were geostrophic velocities between 
station pairs calculated at the selected depths . These 
depths were chosen as they essentially covered the depth of 
the water column and represented portions of each identified 
water mass. The tabulated data will be found in Appendix C. 



45 



Another attempt to determine the general circulation pat- 
tern was based on the net mass transport values between sta- 
tions in each of the three (Upper, Intermediate, and Deep/ 
Bottom) layers . Appendix B has the tabulated net mass trans- 
port data for each layer, with subdivisions by water mass. 

The circulation pattern composed of station pairs along 
each track consisted. of a series of opposing north/south 
flows of various magnitudes . The eddy circulation was appar- 
ent in the pattern made up of selected geostrophic velocities 
as well as in net mass transports. Even. with station pairs 
approximately two degrees of longitudinal distance apart, 
opposing flows [as were found also by Warren (1973)] from 
one pair to the next occurred. These opposing flows are pro- 
bably associated with mesoscale eddies. 



46 



V. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 

A. THE LEVEL OF NO MOTION 

The objective of this study was to determine a constant 
depth motionless level across the entire Pacific. This ob- 
jective differed from the level of no motion determination 
method of Baker (1978) in which each level between station 
pairs was selected individually in an attempt to achieve a 
net mass and salt balance. Near the ends of each latitude 
section the motionless layer was selected at the ocean floor. 
Tables II and III illustrate the net transports at various 
levels. The trans-oceanic levels for 2 8 S and 43 S are 
illustrated in Figures 8 and 9 respectively. The chosen 
levels of no motion were approximately 762m (2 8 S) and 
1203m (43°S) and were the dominant levels used, Tables IV 
and V. 

B. MASS AND SALT TRANSPORT 

As was stated earlier, the criterion of approximately 
zero mass transport was considered to be the primary factor 
for continuity. Zero net salt transport was of secondary 
importance. As shown in Tables II and III, very small values 
of mass and salt were obtained at different depths very close 
to each other. The level which gave the smallest net mass 
transport across 28 S was 762 meters, which was selected as 
the level of no motion for the section. Across 43 S, the 



47 



TABLE II 



LEVEL OF NO MOTION 2 8 U S 



DEPTH 


OF 


NET MASS 


NET SALT 


NET HEAT 


LEVEL 


OF 


TRANSPORT 


TRANSPORT 


TRANSPORT 


NO 










MOTION 


(10 12 gm/sec) 


CIO 12 °/oo/sec) 


C10 12 cal/sec) 


700 




-3.8738 


-131.708 


-1034.07 


750 




-0.7893 


- 24.9648 


- 181.296 


760 




-0 .1488 


- 2.8013 


4.2565 


761 




-0 .0831 


- 0.5269* 


13.8967 


762 




-0 .0166* 


1.7732 


32 .5682 


763 




.0447 


3.8953 


49 .2305 


764 




.1090 


6 .1189 


66 .9985 


770 




.5032 


19 .7583 


175 .920 


780 




1.1329 


41.5422 


350 .021 


790 




1.7586 


63.1833 


523 .032 



Minimum net value 



48 



TABLE III 



LEVEL OF NO MOTION 43°S 



DEPTH 


OF 


NET MASS 


NET SALT 


NET HEAT 


LEVEL 


OF 


TRANSPORT 


TRANSPORT 


TRANSPORT ' 


NO 
MOTION 


12 
(10 gin/ sec) 


(10 12 °/oo/sec) 


(10 12 cal/sec) 


1050 




-12.7767 


-444.146 


-3478 .68 


1150 




- 4.0488 


-142 .408 


-1069. 35 


1180 




- 1.7864 


- 64.2029 


- 443.930 


1200 




- 0.1418 


- 7.3359 


12 .0479 


1202 




- 0.0004- 


- 2.4490 


51.0940 


1203 




0.0800 


- 0.0 301* 


70 .3159 


1204 




.1408 


2 .4334 


90 .1206 


1206 




.2812 


7 .2849 


128.897 


1208 




0.4214 


12 .1323 


167.628 


1210 




0.5613 


16 .9695 


2 6.275 


1212 




0.7003 


21.7734 


244.668 


1220 




1.2492 


40 .7502 


396 .283 


1250 




4.809 


164.078 


1390 .62 


1280 




6 .6521 


227.805 


1899 .19 


1301 




7.8318 


268.624 


2224.56 



Minimum net value 



49 



TABLE IV 
LEVELS OF NO MOTION USE % 



28 South Pacific (99 pairs of stations) 



Level of ' % Total 

No Motion No. of Times Used/Section Station Pairs 

10 2 2.0% 

762 97 9 8.0% 

9 9 10 0% 






50 



Level of 


No Motion 


250 


300 


350 


400 


450 


650 


1100 


1203 



TABLE V 
LEVELS OF NO MOTION USE % 



43 South Pacific C77 pairs of stations) 



No. of Times Used/Section 

2 

1 

3 

3 

2 

1 

1 
64 
7 7 10 0% 



% Total 
Station Pairs 


2 


6% 


1 


3% 


3 


9% 


3 


9% 


2 


6% 


1 


3% 


1 


3% 


83 


1% 



51 



effects of net salt transport entered into choice of the 
level of no motion at 1203 meters, selected as the level best 
for minimizing both mass and salt transport. This author 
doubts that stating the levels to be 762 and 1203 meters is 
without some error. As can be seen by the tabulated results 
of Tables II and III, the calculated balance is very sensi- 
tive to changes in levels of no motion. It is doubtful that 
even the accuracy of the initial depth, salinity and tempera- 
ture measurements , although very acceptable in their own 
right, justify the precise levels offered. The level of no 
motion should in reality be considered in the neighborhood 
of these depths . 

The net mass transport across the 2 8°S and 43 S latitudi- 
nal sections associated with the selected levels of no motion 

12 
was -0.02 and 0.08 times 10 gm/sec wxth the net salt trans- 
port of 1.8 and -0.03 times 10 ~ /oo/sec as shown in Tables 
VI and VII. 

C. HEAT TRANSPORT 

Latitudinal net meridional transport of heat may be ex- 
pressed as 

C CT - T ) p V 
ps n s s ns 

If the specific heat at constant pressure of sea water, C , 
* r ' ps ' 

is assumed to be one (cal/g C), the above expression reduces 

to 

(T - T ) p V 
n s s ns 



52 



TABLE VI 
TOTAL NET TRANSPORT 



28°S Pacific Ocean 



Water Mass 



Mass 




>■ 


Transport 


Salt 


Heat 


2.16 


75.17 


■ 628.53 


-0.14 


-5.06 


-41.83 


-1.10 


-38.72 


-328.21 



Peru Surface Water 

Pseudo Peru Surface 
Water 

South Central Subtropic 
Surface Water 

Surface Water of South 0.18 5.46 52.39 

Temperate Latitudes 

South Subtropical Sub- 2.87 100.73 826.1+5 
surface Water 

Unknown 0.62 21.19 178.74 

South Pacific Inter- -3.45 -118.88 -945.01 

mediate Water 

South Pacific Upper -17.44 -604.15 -4800.14 
Deep Water 

Underlying Deep Water -5.42 -187.73 -1489.94 

Pacific Bottom Water 10.51 388.62 3068.35 

Antarctic Bottom Water 11.19 365.17 2883.24 



Net -0.02 1.8 32.57 

(10 12 gm/sec) (10 12 °/oo/sec ) (10 12 cal/sec) 



53 



43°S Pacific Ocean 



Water Mass 



TABLE VII 






TOTAL NET TRANSPORT 






Mass 






Transport 


Salt 


"Heat 


0.0 


0.0 


.0 


0.37 


13.00 


105 .52 



Peru Surface Water 

Pseudo Peru Surface 
Water 

South Central Subtropic 0.0 0.0 0.0 

Surface Water 

Surface Water of South 2.20 75.10 619.15 

Temperate Latitudes 

South Subtropical Sub- 0.59 21.15 170.20 

surface Water 

Unknown -0.02 -0.79 -6.75 

South Pacific Inter- 7.78 267.01 2166.92 

mediate Water 

South Pacific Upper -6.83 -236.74 -1380.73 

Deep Water 

Underlying Deep Water -9.13 -316.75 -2509.00 

Pacific Bottom Water 2.65 92.11 727.47 

Antarctic Bottom Water 2.47 85.88 677.54 



Net 0.08 -0.03 70.32 

(10 12 gm/sec) (10 12 °/oo/sec ) ( 10 12 cal/sec) 



54 



The meridional mass transport is p V and T is the 

c s ns n 

northward moving water temperature, T ( C) the southward 

moving water temperature. Mass continuity requires the mass 

transport p V (north) and p V (south) to cancel each 
r s ns s ns 

other for a mass balance to be present across the section. 
This is not necessarily the case for heat transport as was 
evident by the results . The temperatures of the water being 
transported across the section differ, thereby producing the 
net meridional transport. Measurement of that heat flux was 
a prime objective of this study. Of the two latitudinal sec- 
tions, the more poleward section, at 43 S, will be discussed 
first. Ten separate water masses were identified and their 
respective net heat transports calculated (Table VIII). 
Peru Surface Water accounted for a net northward transport 
of heat. Pseudo Peru Surface Water in the western Pacific 
had a net southern heat flow. Surface Water of the South Tem- 
perate Latitudes had a net northward flow of heat. There was 
also a net northward heat transport attributed to the South 
Subtropical Surface Water. The unknown surface water quan- 
tity had a small net heat transport to the south. Summariz- 
ing these separate surface or near surface water masses re- 
sulted in a net northward flow in the Upper level of approxi- 
mately 888 x 10 12 cal/sec. 

The Intermediate level consisted solely of South Pacific 
Intermediate water which had a net northward transport of 
2166 x 10 12 cal/sec. 

There were two deep water masses identified: South 



55 



TABLE VIII 
NET HEAT TRANSPORT 



Water Mass 

Peru Surface Water 

Pseudo Peru Surface Water 

South Central Subtropic 
Surface Water 

Surface Water of the South 
Temperate Latitudes 

South Subtropic Subsurface 
Wat e r 

Unknown 

South Pacific Intermediate 
Water 

South Pacific Upper Deep 
Water 

Underlying Deep Water 

Pacific Bottom Water 

Antarctic Bottom Water 



28°S 


43° S 


628.5 


''0.0 


-41.8 


105.5 


-328.2 


.0 



52 .5 

826.6 

178 .7 
-945.0 

-4800 .0 

-1489 .9 

3068.4 

2883.2 

33.0 



619 .2 

170.1 

-6 .8 
2166 .9 

-1880 .7 

-2509 .0 

727.4 

677 .4 

70 .0 



12 
Units are 10 cal/sec 



56 



Pacific Upper Deep Water and Underlying Deep Water. These two 

deep water masses had a combined southward net transport of 

12 
approximately 4390 x 10 cal/sec. The bottom waters, Antarc- 
tic Bottom Water and Pacific Bottom Water transported heat to 

12 

the north with a combined net transport of 140 5 x 10 cal/sec. 

r 

When the deep and bottom net heat transports were combined, 

12 
the resultant net was a southward flow of 2985 x 10 cal/sec. 

Along the more equatorward section of 28 S there were some 
general consistencies with the results of 43 S section and 
also some differences . Again the Peru Surface Water had a net 
northward transport while the Pseudo Peru Surface Water had a 
southward transport. A new water mass, the South Central Sub- 
tropic Surface Water, was identified and found to have a net 
southward transport. Surface Water of South Temperate Lati- 
tudes again had a northward transport , along with the South 
Subtropical Surface Water and the minor amount of unknown sur- 
face water. The combined total was calculated to be a net 

12 
northward flow of 1316 x 10 cal/sec. 

As with the poleward section, the sole water mass found 

in the Intermediate level was South Pacific Intermediate Water. 

At this latitude it had a net southward transport of 945 x 

12 
10 cal/sec rather than a northward transport as was the case 

at 43°S. 

The Deep and Bottom waters (South Pacific Upper Deep Water, 

Underlying Deep Water, Pacific Bottom Water and Antarctic 

Bottom Water) had a much larger amount of net heat transported 

per water mass or even totaled as Deep Water (net southward 



5 7 



12 
flow of 6290 x 10 cal/sec) and Bottom Water (net northward 

12 

transport of 5952 x 10 cal/sec). However when combined 

into the Deep and Bottom level, the net transport was 338 x 

12 
10 cal/sec to the south. 

A comparison of the Upper, Intermediate and Deep/Bottom 

net transports of the two latitudes is as shown in Table IX. 



TABLE IX 
LAYER HEAT TRANSPORTS 
LEVEL 28°S U3°S 



Upper 1316 888 

Middle -945 2167 

Deep/Bottom -338 -2985 



33 x 70 x 

12 12 

10 cal/sec 10 cal/sec 



12 
There is larger net northward flow (.70 x 10 cal/sec) along 

43°S than along 28°S (32 x 10 12 cal/sec). However the attempt 

to combine the effects of various water masses causes their 

respective effects to be smoothed over. Table VIII which 

shows the net heat transport of each individual water mass 

is much more informative. 

It is evident from Table VIII that the net water mass 

transport directions appear reasonable when associated with 

their respective water masses (i.e. Peru Surface Water and 

Pacific Bottom Water, north; Underlying Deep Water, south). 

The net northward transport of heat is the surprising factor. 



58 



A change of only 1 or 2% of the heat attributed to deep and 
bottom transport could easily have negated this northward 
transport. When one considers the initial assumptions upon 
which this study is based, this slight northward transport 
value is probably within the range of error for this study. 

D. OCEANIC EDDY CIRCULATION 

The calculated transport components suggest the presence 
of oceanic eddies. Appendix C illustrates the reverse pattern 
of point depth geostrophic velocities both vertically within 
a station pair and horizontally from one station pair to 
another. 

Along the east coast of Australia, Harmon C19 70) wrote 
that surface currents are complex, variable and strong. Water 
is transported south by large anticyclonic eddies , some of 
which may be 2 50km in diameter. These eddies may be formed 
when the main East Australia current bulges to the south and 
becomes unstable, causing the bulge to separate as an eddy. 
Along both transits near the coast of Australia eddies were 
apparent . 

One example is offered here. Figure 11 illustrates the 
surface circulation around New Zealand. Attention is directed 
to the anticyclonic eddy off the eastern coast which was 
studied by Burns (19 72). The coastal currents are derived 
from Stanton (19 72). The geostrophic current directions are 
in approximate agreement with those of Burns and Stanton. 



59 



43s 




43s 



170 175 180 



Figure 11. New Zealand Surface Circulation with 
Eddy 



60 



E. CALCULATED CIRCULATION PATTERN 

The calculated circulation pattern is derived from mass 
transports and geostrophic current velocities . Fine scale 
interpretation was made using individual station-pair rates 
of mass transport along with geostrophic current velocities. 
Because of numerous direction and magnitude fluctuations be- 
tween station pairs , the station pairs were first combined in 
20 longitude segments . This proved to be too large a group- 
ing scale as too many details were averaged out. Therefore 
5 longitude segments were tried and found to be more ideal 
as pictured in Figures 12, 13, 14 and 15. The net flow of 
the deep waters (South Pacific Upper Deep Water and Pacific 
Bottom Water) was found to be southward while the Bottom Waters 
CPacific Bottom Water and Antarctic Bottom Water) were found 
to have a net flow to the north. For this reason of opposing 
flow, the Deep/Bottom layer utilized by Jung C1955) and Baker 
(1978) has been subdivided into Deep layer and Bottom layer. 
The circulation layers are therefore termed Upper Layer, In- 
termediate Layer, Deep Layer and Bottom Layer. 

1 . Upper Circulation 

The Upper Layer transport (Figure 16) was found to 
be anticyclonic with a large anticyclonic gyre between the 
coast of South America and about the International Date Line. 
A smaller anticyclonic gyre was also apparent to the west in 
the Tasman/Coral Sea area. Along the South American Coast, 
a southward flowing current was detected. The sampling was 
done in late May and early June in this area; it is proposed 



61 




62 







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o 

•H 
+■> 

O 
0) 

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co 
w 



GO 

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a, 

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& 
E-" 

co 

CO 

rd 
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0) 

M 

DO 



63 




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0) 



en 

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■H 



64 







c 
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CJ 
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01 



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£ 

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66 



that this southward flowing current is the subsurface counter 
current (Gunther, 19 36) which has surfaced immediately adja- 
cent to the coast. On the other side of the South Pacific, 
the south flowing East Australia current is picked up with 

velocities in general agreement with Scully-Powers (1972). 

r 

The Upper level was calculated to have a net northward trans- 
port of mass, salt and heat at both 28 S and 43 S with the 
current directions in agreement with traditional theory 
(Sverdrup et al . , 1942). 

2 . Intermediate Circulation 

The Intermediate Layer was roughly between 500m and 
1800m in both latitudinal tracks. Whether or not the circu- 
lation was cyclonic or anticyclonic was undetermined (Figure 
17). Along the 28 S transit there was a net southward trans- 
port of mass, salt and heat. This is contrasted with the 
43 S transit which has a net northward transport of mass , 
salt and heat. In the Tasman/Coral Sea area there were net 
northward transports in both transits. 

3 . Deep Circulation 

As was mentioned previously in Section IV. p. 42, 
there is the possibility of cyclonic deep and bottom circula- 
tion in the South Pacific. Included in this circulation pat- 
tern are strong western boundary currents with weaker broader 
southern currents to the east. The data as illustrated in 
Figure 18 could be interpreted to have a cyclonic pattern. 
The Deep Water along both transits had a net southward trans- 
port. The western boundaries seemed to have a stronger net 



67 







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u 
o 

Ch 
CO 
C 
rt) 
U 
Eh 

co 

to 

s 

Sh 
(U 

CU 

fj 
nj 

•H 

CD 

£ 

CD 
+J 

C 
I— I 



rH 

CD 
■H 



68 




+-> 
(h 

O 
G< 

w 

c 

m 

IT) 

s 

in 

CD 
>l 

<d 

QJ 

Q 



•H 



69 



northward flow. The Tasman/Coral Sea did appear cyclonic in 
circulation; however the pattern in the general South Pacific 
east of that area was not as clear. 
4 . Bottom Circulation 

The Bottom Layer as previously discussed is thought 
to have a cyclonic circulation with strong western boundary 
currents (Figure 19). In the bottom water detected along the 
28 S track, this cyclonic circulation indeed was the case. 
Also along the 4 3 S track, east of the New Zealand Plateau, 
there was strong geostrophic evidence of this . In the Tasman 
Sea along 43 S the circulation was not cyclonic, but anti- 
cyclonic with a net southward transport. For the total transit 
along both latitude sections the net mass , salt and heat 
transport was to the north. 

Interest is drawn to the Tonga-Kermadec Trench located 
along 28 S at approximately 176 W and extending to a depth in 
the neighborhood of 8700m. Gilmour (1972) reported a north- 
ward current against the western boundary of the ridge with 
a southerly counter current over the central trench with a 
broad northerly current on the eastern side. This was at a 
depth of 4000m. Reid et al. (1968) wrote, based on the SCORPIO 
data, of a narrow (70 km wide) northern boundary current flow- 
ing between 2500 and 4000m east of the Tonga-Kermadec Ridge 
(in the trench). Reid (1970) reported a southerly flow at 
1000m and a northerly flow at 3000m. The results of this 
study are in agreement with Reid in that over the trench (sta- 
tion pair 150-149) a southward current was found between 



70 










+J 

u 
o 

c 

u 

Eh 

tfl 

n3 
2 

0) 

>. 
£ 

o 
+j 
+j 

o 

CQ 



CD 



0) 

U 
3 
bO 



71 



1100m and 3200m with a northward flow below. These results , 
especially concerning bottom circulation, agree with others 
which have been mentioned. 






72 



VI. CONCLUSIONS 

Reid (1961) once wrote that in areas where data is lack- 
ing, geostrophic currents can be accepted with some confi- 
dence. Using the procedures set forth by Jung (1955), this 
study attempted to determine: (1) a level of no motion in the 
South Pacific dependent upon the principles of mass and salt 
conservation; (2) the direction of heat transport in the 
South Pacific; and (3) a four-vertically-layered circulation 
pattern computed by mass transport values under the geostro- 
phic assumption and mass continuity. 

Levels of no motion were calculated according to the pro- 
cedure of Sverdrup et al. (19 42) to be about 762m (28°S) and 
1203m (43°S) . 

The current circulation for the Upper Layer was deter- 
mined to be anticyclonic while the Bottom Layer was cyclonic. 
The Intermediate and Deep Layer patterns could not be deter- 
mined with good confidence . The Upper Layer had a net 
northern transport at both latitudes , while the Intermediate 
Layer had southern transport at 2 8 S and a northern transport 
at 43 S. The Deep Layer had a southern transport along both 
latitudes. The Bottom Layer had, as expected, a net northern 
transport. Known eddies off the east coast of Australia and 
New Zealand were located and deep trench circulation patterns 
were found. 



73 



Along both latitude lines , there was determined a net 

12 
northward heat flow of 3 3 and 70 x 10 cal/sec. A change of 

only 1 or 2% of the heat attributed to deep and bottom trans- 
port could easily have negated this northward transport. 
Given the initial assumptions made, this slight northward 
transport value is probably within the range of error for 
this study. 



7i+ 



APPENDIX A 

OCEANOGRAPHIC STATIONS 

The stations are listed West to East along both latitudes 

Station Number 

185 
184 
183 
182 
181 
180 
179 
178 
177 
176 
175 
174 
173 
172 
171 
170 
169 
168 
167 
166 
165 
164 
163 
162 
161 
160 
159 
158 
157 
156 
155 
154 
153 
152 
151 
150 
149 
148 
147 
146 
145 
144 
14 3 
142 



75 



Latitude 




Longitude 




28° 


11 


4 


S 


153° 


50 





E 


28° 


20 





S 


154° 


03 


4 


•E 


28° 


22 





S 


154° 


20 


.5 


»E 


28° 


14 


6 


S 


, 154° 


45 


.6 


•E 


28° 


14 


3 


S 


155° 


15 


.2 


•E 


28° 


14 


2 


s 


155° 


50 


.7 


'E 


28° 


10 


3 


s 


156° 


33 


.7 


•E 


28° 


09 


4 


s 


157° 


11 


.2 


»E 


2 8° 


14 


9 


s 


158° 


07 


.0 


'E 


28° 


14 


7 


s 


159° 


02 


.5 


'E 


28° 


15 


2 


s 


160° 


05 


.5 


'E 


28° 


18 


9 


s 


160° 


56 


.8 


E 


28° 


15 


3 


s 


161° 


55 


.4 


E 


2 8° 


12 


1 


s 


162° 


51 


.4 


E 


2 8° 


13 


5 


s 


163° 


50 


.0 


E 


28° 


12 


1 


s 


164° 


43 


.6 


E 


28° 


09 


7 


s 


165° 


44 


.8 


E 


28° 


11 


5 


s 


166° 


45 


.4 


'E 


28° 


14 


8 


s 


167° 


36 


3 


E 


28° 


15 


2 


s 


168° 


38 


5 


E 


28° 


19 





s 


169° 


28 


7 


E 


28° 


11 


6 


s 


171° 


06 





E 


28° 


09 


1 


s 


172° 


56 


2 


E 


28° 


16 


5 


s 


174° 


47 


4 


E 


28° 


11 


7 


s 


175° 


46 





E 


28° 


10 


1 


s 


176° 


37 


6 


E 


28° 


15 


8 


s 


177° 


33 


5 


E 


28° 


12 


2 


s 


178° 


26 


9 


E 


23° 


13 


2 


s 


179° 


21 





E 


2 8° 


10 


6 


s 


179° 


32 





W 


28° 


11 


3 


s 


178° 


38 


9 


W 


28° 


15 


4 


s 


177° 


44 





W 


28° 


16 


2 


s 


177° 


26 


7 


w 


28° 


17 





s 


177° 


04 


7 


w 


28° 


18 


3 


s 


176° 


27 


6 


w 


28° 


15 


7 


s 


176° 


10 





w 


2 8° 


15 


5 


s 


175° 


49 


5 


w 


28° 


10 





s 


174° 


50 


7 


w 


28° 


07 


2 


s 


173° 


58 





w 


28° 


11 


6 


s 


173° 


07 


3 


w 


28° 


19 


4 


s 


171° 


36 





w 


28° 


15 


7 


s 


170° 


14 


8 


w 


28° 


16 


5 


s 


168° 


49 


5 


w 


28° 


18 





s 


167° 


27. 





w 



28' 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
2 8 C 
28 C 
28 C 
2 8 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
2 8 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 ( 
28 C 
28 C 
28 ( 
28 ( 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 C 
28 ( 



28 



28 



28 

28 ( 

28 C 

2 8 C 

28 ( 

28 C 

28 C 

28 c 

28 C 

28 C 



28 
28 ( 



13. 
12 . 
17. 
16 . 
12. 
17. 
15. 
13. 
14. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
14. 
15. 
13. 
18. 
18. 
17. 
17. 
16 . 
14. 
14. 
15. 
15 . 
13. 
15 . 
14. 
16. 
17. 
15. 
15. 
14. 
14. 
16. 
14. 
12 . 
13. 
12 . 
14. 
13. 
15. 
14. 
15. 
15. 
15 . 
15 . 
15. 
18. 
14. 
12 . 
15. 

15 , 

16 . 
15. 



S 
S 

s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 



165 
163 
161 
160 

158 
156 
154 
152 
150 
148 
146 
145 
143 
141 
139 
137 
135 
133 
131 
130 
128 
126 
124 
122 
120 
11 
116 
114 
113 
111 
109 
107 
105 
103 
101 
99 
97 
95 
94 
92 
90 
88 
86 
84 c 
84 C 
30 c 
79 C 
77 c 
75 C 
74 C 
73 c 
72 C 
72 C 
71 C 



42 

51 

59 

06 

12 

16 

26 

36 

51 

47 

51 

01 

09 

11 

20 

26 

37 

46 

56 

02 

06 

13 

21 

24 

31 

39 

50 

56 

00 

12 

16- 

25 

28 

36 

39 

54 

54 

59 

13 

19 

27 

33 

35 

46 

46 

59 

07 

09 

21 

35 

41 

55 

04 

39 



,4'W 
2 'W 
•W 

*w 
•w 
•w 
•w 
»w 
*w 
•w 
•w 

'W 

•w 
•w 
•w 

'W 

•w 
•w 
»w 

'W 

»w 

'W 

»w 

'W 

•w 
»w 
»w 
»w 

'W 

*w 

'W 

»w 

»w 
•w 
*w 

'W 
'W 

»w 
»w 
•w 

'W 

*w 
•w 
•w 

'W 
'W 

»w 
•w 

'W 

'W 
'W 



76 



87 

86 



28 
28 ( 



15 
15 



O'S 
8 ' S 



71 v 

71 c 



18 
15 



3'W 

O'W 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 



43 l 

43 ( 

43 ( 

43 c 

43 ( 

43 ( 

43' 

43 ( 

43 ( 

43* 

43' 

43' 

43' 

43 ( 

43' 

43' 

43' 

43' 

43' 

43' 

43' 

43' 

43 ( 

43 ( 

43 

43' 

43' 

43' 

43 ( 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

4 3 C 

4 3 C 

43 C 

4 3 C 

4 3 C 

4 3 C 

4 3 C 

4 3 C 

4 3 C 

4 3 C 

4 3 C 

4 3 C 



o 



15 

16 

17 

13 

15 

15 

15 

14 

14 

12. 

17 

17 

16 

12 

12. 

13 

14 

16 

11. 
16. 
14. 
14. 
11, 
12 . 
15. 
19. 
16 . 
13. 
15. 
15 . 

15 . 
15. 
12. 
13, 
13, 
12. 
14, 
13, 
15 

16 . 
17. 
15. 
15 
15. 
13 
16 
13. 



'S 



l'S 



148° 
148° 
148° 
149° 
150° 
152° 
154° 
156° 
158° 
161° 
16 3° 
165° 
16 6° 
167° 
16 8° 

16 9° 

17 3° 
17 4° 
175° 
17 7° 
179° 
179° 
17 7° 
175° 
17 3° 
172° 
171° 
170° 
16 9° 
16 9° 
168° 
167° 
166° 
164° 
162° 
159° 

157° 
155° 
152° 
150° 
148° 
146° 
143° 
141° 
139° 
136° 
13 4° 



12. 

23. 

39 

20. 

28. 

07, 

24, 

37. 

48. 

04. 

18. 

38. 

43. 

22 . 

12 . 

38 

51. 

36 

45 , 

36 , 

15, 

00 . 

22 . 

28. 

50 . 

42 , 

42 , 

41, 

50 , 

04, 

30 , 

53. 

47. 

31. 

09, 

50 . 

30, 

11. 

53. 

35 . 

18, 

03, 

43. 

26 , 

11. 

47. 

27. 



»E 
•E 

>E 
'E 
•E 
•E 
»E 
•E 
'E 
«E 
»E 
•E 
'E 
»E 
'E 
'E 
'E 
'E 
•E 
»E 
•E 
'W 
'W 

*w 
T w 

'W 
'W 

»w 
»w 
•w 

'W 

*w 

'W 

•w 

'W 

•w 

"W 

*w 
•w 
»w 

•w 

*w 
»w 
»w 

'W 



77 



48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 



4 3 

4 3 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 ( 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43< 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 

43 C 



12 
15 
15 

15 
16 
15 
17 
18 
16 
15 
14 
15 
15 
15 
15 
13 
18 
14 
16 
15 
14 
15 
15 
14 
19 
15 
16 
12 
15 
17 
15 



132 

129 C 

127 c 

125 C 

12 3 C 

120 C 

118 C 

116 

us; 

112 

109 C 

106 C 

104 C 

102 C 

99 C 

97 C 

95 C 

9 3 C 

90 C 

88 C 

86 C 

8 3 C 



79 
78 C 

77 C 
76 C 
75 C 
75 C 
75 C 



14, 
53, 
36, 
19. 
02, 
40, 
23, 
05. 
48, 
27, 
12 . 
54, 
34, 
19. 
59, 
38, 
34, 
24, 
49, 
31. 
11, 
52, 
40. 
02. 
01. 
01. 
01. 
04, 
30 . 
24, 
07, 



•w 

'W 

*w 
>w 
»w 
•w 
•w 
»w 
»w 
»w 
»w 

'W 

»w 

'W 

•w 

*w 
•w 

'W 



1 
1 

5 

1 

4 







1 

3 

5 

O'W 



'W 

'W 

T w 

'W 

•w 

'W 
'W 

•w 

'W 



78 



APPENDIX B 

GEOSTROPHIC DATA 

The following pages contain the net mass , salt and heat 
transports for each of the Upper, Intermediate, and Deep^ and 
Bottom Layers (combinations of water masses) between each pair 
of stations observed along the two latitudes of this study. 

Each water layer is further subdivided by water mass . All 

12 
mass transport values are expressed in terms of 10 gm/sec. 

The salt transport units are 10 /oo/sec and the heat trans- 

12 
port units are 10 cal/sec. 

The following number system is used in this appendix: 

1. = Peru Surface Water 

2 . = South-Central Subtropic Surface Water 

3. = Surface Water of South Temperate Latitude 

4. = South Subtropical Surface Water 

5 . = South Pacific Intermediate Water 
6 . = South Pacific Upper Deep 

7. = Underlying Deep Water 

8 . = Antarctic Bottom Water 

9 . = Pacific Bottom Water 
Unknown = Unclassified Water Mass 

Indicates southward flow 



79 



Mass Transport 2 8° 15. 'S 



Station 


Upper 


Pair 


Total 


185-184 


-0. 


.204 


184-183 


-6. 


,019 


183-182 


-2. 


,706 


182-181 


5. 


,269 


181-180 


-2. 


626 


180-179 


-1. 


,174 


179-178 


-3. 


,554 


178-177 


1. 


,563 


177-176 


-0. 


,106 


176-175 


1. 


,638 


175-174 


1. 


,296 


174-173 


1. 


,988 


173-172 


. 


,883 


172-171 


-2 . 


,108 


171-170 


-2 . 


,396 


170-169 


1. 


,410 


169-168 


1. 


,767 


168-167 


3. 


,911 


167-166 


-0 , 


,301 


166-165 


-2 . 


.009 


165-164 


-4 . 


,492 


164-163 


7, 


,649 


163-162 


-3. 


,644 


162-161 


-2 . 


,954 


161-160 


1. 


,181 


160-159 


0, 


,561 


159-158 


3, 


,025 


158-157 


0, 


.013 


157-156 


-4, 


.390 


156-155 


3, 


,070 


155-154 


3. 


.230 


154-153 


. 


.172 


153-152 


-0 . 


.368 


152-151 


-0 . 


.032 


151-150 


-0 , 


,383 


150-149 


-0. 


.954 


149-148 


-3, 


.162 


148-147 


3, 


,775 


147-146 





.673 


146-145 





.318 


145-144 


-2 


.820 


144-143 


2 


.117 


143-142 


-0 


.446 


142-141 


-3 


.298 


lt+1-140 


1 


.598 


140-139 


4 


.056 


139-138 


-0 


. 330 


138-137 


-0 


.118 



2 3 4 Unknown 

-0.061 -0.143 

-3.175 -2.844 

•1.319 -1.387 

3.213 2.056 

•1.029 -1.597 

•0.496 -0.678 

•1.586 -1.968 

0.715 - 0.848 

• 0.048 -0.058 
0.831 0.807 
0.487 0.809 
0.883 1.106 

• 0.052 0.934 
■0.407 -1.701 
•0.448 -1.948 

0.284 1.127 

0.696 1.071 

1.374 2.537 

-0 .301 

-0.760 -1.250 

-1.520 -2.972 

2.139 5.510 

-0.545 -3.100 

-0.842 -2.112 

.228 .953 

0.281 0.280 

0.525 2.500 

-0.093 0.106 

-1.524 -2.866 

1.217 1.853 

3.230 
.172 

-0.074 -0.294 

-0.018 -0.014 

-0.155 -0.227 

•0.127 -0.827 

-1.065 -2.096 

1.545 2.230 

.673 

.318 

-0.517 -2.303 

0.360 1.757 

-0.062 -0.384 

-1.304 -1.995 

0.715 0.883 

1.451 2 .606 

-0.194 -0.135 

0.051 -0.169 



80 



Station 


Upper 














Pair 


Total 


1 


2 




3 


4 


Unknown 


137-136 


1.195 




-0.315 






-0 .880 




136-135 


2 .589 




0.573 






2.017 




135-134 


0.883 




.148 






.735 




134-133 


-0 .054 




-0.169 






0.115 




133-132 


-0.950 


-0 .212 


-0 .172 






-0 .567 




132-131 


.167 


.003 








0.16 3 




131-130 


-0.690 


-0.590 








-0 .100 


/ 


130-129 


-2.963 


-1.270 








-1.692 




129-128 


-0 .782 


-0.427 








-0 .355 




128-127 


4.096 


2 .101 








1.995 




127-126 


0.117 


-0 .108 








0.225 




126-125 


-2 .296 


-0 .395 


-0 .904 






-0.997 




125-124 


-1.100 


-0 .224 


-0.523 






-0.354 




124-123 


1.408 


.264 


0.498 






.645 




123-122 


-3.160 




-1.605 






-1.555 




122-121 


-1.545 




-0.822 






-0 .723 




121-120 


3.445 




1.754 






1.691 




120-119 


-3.521 




-1. 867 






-1.655 




119-118 


2 .507 




1.284 






1.223 




118-117 


-2 .910 




-1.256 






-1.654 




117-116 


4.202 




1.958 






2 .244 




116-115 


-1.788 


-0 .319 


-0.642 






-0 .827 




115-114 


3.793 


.604 


1.353 






1.836 




114-113 


.149 


0.061 


.023 






.065 




113-112 


-1.501 


-0 .274 


-0 .583 






-0 .643 




112-111 


0.813 




.402 






.411 




111-110 


0.737 


.071 


.229 






.438 




110-109 


-2 .410 




-1.123 






-1.288 




109-108 


1.338 




.619 






0.719 




108-107 


.561 




.296 






0.265 




107-106 


-0.179 


-0.013 


.018 






-0 .179 




106-105 


.727 


.189 


.097 






.440 




105-104 


.823 


. 356 








.466 




104-103 


.839 


.474 




0, 


.107 


.259 




103-102 


-1.690 


-0 .823 




-0 . 


.221 


-0 .645 




102-101 


0.554 


. 837 




. 


.091 


-0. 374 




101-100 


2 .215 


.450 




. 


.401 


1.365 




100-099 


.157 


.021 







.045 


0.091 




099-098 


.779 


0.589 




, 


.214 


-0 .024 




098-097 


-0.116 


.037 




-0 , 


.053 


-0 .100 




097-096 


2 .278 


.870 




. 


.936 


.471 




096-095 


-0 .170 


-0 .183 




-0 


.015 


.029 




095-094 


.961 


.453 




. 


.402 


.106 




094-093 


-2 .894 






-1. 


.293 


-1.601 




093-092 


4.423 






2 , 


.264 


2 .159 




092-091 


2 .097 






1. 


.197 


.281 


.619 


091-090 


-0 .323 






-0 


.274 


-0 .049 




090-089 


-1.237 






-0 


.724 


-0 .513 




089-088 


-1.823 


-0 .275 




-1 


.131 


-0 .418 




088-087 


-3.335 


-0 .099 




-1 


.771 


-1.465 




087-036 


.002 









.002 







Total 



4.597 







Salt Transport 28 15.0'S 




Station 


Upper 








Pair 


Total 


1 2 


3 4 


Unknown 


185-184 


-7.242 




-2.183 


-5.059 


184-183 


-213.278 


-112 .900 


-100.378 




183-182 


-96.104 


-46 .977 


-49 .127 




182-181 


187.109 


114.361 


72 .748 


f 


181-180 


-93.212 


-36.672 


-56 .540 




180-179 


-41.652 


-17.692 


-23 .961 




179-178 


-126.326 


-56 .580 


-69.746 




178-177 


55 .521 


25.519 


30 .002 




177-176 


-3.735 


-1.720 


-2.015 




176-175 


58.321 


29.673 


28.647 




175-174 


46.024 


17.386 


28.638 




174-173 


70.577 


31.486 


39 .091 




173-172 


30.888 


-1.838 


32 .726 




172-171 


-74.438 


-14.504 


-59.933 




171-170 


-84.893 


-15 .978 


-68 .915 




170-169 


50.068 


10 .124 


39 .944 




169-168 


62.689 


24.846 


37.843 




168-167 


138.958 


49 .053 


89 .905 




167-166 


-10 .733 




-10 .733 




166-165 


-71. 387 


-27.135 


-44 .252 




165-164 


-159 .235 


-54.254 


-104.980 




164-163 


271.225 


76 .332 


194.893 




163-162 


-129 .093 


-19.463 


-109 .629 




162-161 


-104.818 


-30 .026 


-74.792 




161-160 


41.832 


8.135 


33.698 




160-159 


19 .987 


10 .023 


9 .965 




159-158 


107.328 


18 .731 


88.597 




158-157 


.300 


-3.320 


3.620 




157-156 


-155.633 


-54.407 


-101.226 




156-155 


109 .056 


43.438 


65 .618 




155-154 


114.584 




114.584 




154-153 


6 .066 




6 .066 




153-152 


-13.063 


-2 .645 


-10 .418 




152-151 


-1.154 


-0 .637 


-0 .517 




151-150 


-13.736 


-5 .554 


-8.182 




150-149 


-33 .739 


-4.546 


-29.193 




149-148 


-112.143 


-38.031 


-74.112 




148-147 


134.115 


55 .139 


78.975 




147-146 


23.805 




23.805 




146-145 


11.147 




11.147 




145-144 


-100 .147 


-18.460 


-81.688 




144-143 


75 .156 


12.852 


62.304 




143-142 


-15 .805 


-2.223 


-13 .582 




142-141 


-117.280 


-46 .571 


-70.709 




141-140 


56 .706 


25 .526 


31.180 




140-139 


143.948 


51.789 


92 .159 




139-138 


-11.388 


-6 .930 


-4.958 




138-137 


-4.104 


1.811 


-5.915 




137-136 


-42 .399 


-11.197 


-31.202 





32 



Station 


Upper 


















Pair 


Total 




1 




2 




3 


4 


Unknown 


136-135 


91.789 






20, 


.370 






71.419 




135-134 


31.160 






5, 


.273 






25 .887 




134-133 


-2.059 






-6, 


.008 






3.949 




133-132 


-33.600 


-7, 


,512 


-6, 


.096 






-19.992 




132-131 


5.826 


0. 


.122 










5.704 




131-130 


-24.401 


-20. 


,871 










-3.530 




130-129 


-104.594 


-45 , 


.043 










-59 .551 


,- 


129-128 


-27.592 


-15, 


.140 










-12.452 




128-127 


144.527 


74, 


.448 










70.079 




127-126 


4.081 


-3, 


.830 










7.911 




126-125 


-81.199 


-14, 


,017 


-32, 


.138 






-35.044 




125-124 


-38.960 


-7, 


.927 


-18, 


.589 






-12 .443 




124-123 


49 .756 


9, 


.372 


17, 


.719 






22 .665 




123-122 


-111.714 






-57. 


.150 






-54.564 




122-121 


-54.726 






-29. 


.308 






-25.418 




121-120 


121.814 






62. 


.528 






59 .286 




120-119 


-124.689 






-66 


.620 






-58 .069 




119-118 


88 .794 






45 


.839 






42 .955 




118-117 


-102.882 






-44 


.886 






-57.996 




117-116 


148 .441 






69 


.834 






78 .607 




116-115 


-63.250 


-11. 


.334 


-22 


.953 






-28.964 




115-114 


133.894 


21, 


.409 


48 


.305 






64.180 




114-113 


5.229 


2 . 


. 144 





.806 






2 .279 




113-112 


-53.016 


-9, 


.711 


-20. 


.784 






-22 .521 




112-111 


28.741 






14 


.351 






14. 390 




111-110 


25.885 


2 


.512 


8. 


.164 






15 .209 




110-109 


-85.015 






-40 


.079 






-44.936 




109-108 


47.230 






22 


.122 






25 .108 




108-107 


19 .768 






10 


.526 






9 .242 




107-106 


-6 .213 


-0 


.627 





.631 






-6.218 




106-105 


25.449 


6. 


.704 


3 


.452 






15 .292 




105-104 


28.772 


12 . 


.598 










16 .174 




104-103 


29 .377 


16 


.708 






3. 


.702 


8.967 




103-102 


-58.937 


-29 


.004 






-7, 


.635 


-22 .297 




102-101 


19 .644 


29. 


.387 






3, 


.152 


-12 .894 




101-100 


76 .602 


15. 


.733 






13. 


.807 


47.062 




100-099 


5 .406 


0. 


.748 






1. 


.532 


3.126 




099-098 


27.145 


20 


.584 






7. 


.393 


-0 .832 




098-097 


-3.968 


1 


.269 






-1. 


,804 


-3.434 




097-096 


78. 345 


30 


.067 






32 . 


.059 


16 .219 




096-095 


-5.863 


-6 


.339 






-0 . 


.520 


.995 




095-094 


33.038 


15 


.611 






13, 


.769 


3.658 




094-09 3 


-99 .996 










-44 


.564 


-55 .432 




093-092 


152 .745 










78. 


.104 


74.641 




092-091 


72 .033 










41. 


.145 


9.695 


21.194 


091-090 


-11.141 










-9, 


.436 


-1.706 




090-089 


-42 .548 










-24. 


.896 


-17.652 




089-088 


-62 .947 


-9 


.473 






-39 


.019 


-14 .454 




088-087 


-115 .659 


-3 


. 414 






-61. 


.403 


-50 .842 




087-086 


.069 













.069 






Total 


158.765 



















83 



Heat Transport 2 8 15.0 ' S 



Station 
Pair 



Upper 
Total 



185- 

184- 
183- 
182- 
181- 
180- 
179- 
178- 
177- 
176- 
175- 
174- 
173- 
172- 
171- 
170- 
169- 
168- 
167- 
166- 
165- 

lev- 
ies- 

162- 

161- 

160- 

159- 

158- 

157. 

156- 

155. 

154- 

153. 

152. 

151. 

150. 

149 

148 

147 

146 

145 

144 

143 

142 

141 

140 

139 

138 



• 184 

• 183 

• 182 
•181 
•180 

• 179 

• 178 

• 177 

• 176 
■175 

• 174 

• 173 

• 172 
-171 

• 170 

• 169 

• 168 
•167 
■ 166 

• 165 
-164 
•163 
-162 
-161 

• 160 
•159 
-158 
-157 
-156 
-155 
-154 
-153 
-152 
-151 
-150 
-149 
-148 
-147 
-146 
-145 
-144 
-143 
-142 
-141 
-140 
-139 
-138 
-137 



-59. 
-1751, 

-790, 

1538. 

-764. 

-341. 
-1035. 
455, 
-30, 
477, 
376. 
577. 
251, 

-608. 

-694, 
409 , 
512, 

1136, 
-87, 

-583, 
-1301, 

2214, 
-1053, 

-856, 

341, 

163, 

876, 

2 , 

-1273, 

392, 

935, 

49 , 

-106 , 
-9 , 

-112, 

-275, 

-917. 

1096 

194 

9 

-317. 
613 

-128 

-958 
463 

1176 
-97 
-33 



782 
812 
568 
372 

410 
202 
459 
043 
514 
918 
586 
762 
512 
130 
034 
466 
715 
044 
722 
327 
005 
865 
420 
662 
668 
728 
738 
084 
071 
386 
169 
331 
607 
437 
526 
408 
000 
400 
052 
724 
891 
629 
940 
906 
771 
566 
614 
394 



-932 .054 



•932. 
•388 

943. 
•302. 
■145. 
■465. 

209. 

-14. 

243 

142. 

258 

-15 
•119 

• 131 

83 
203 
402 

• 222 

■ 445 
625 

• 159 

• 246 

66 

82 

153 

-27 

■ 446 
356 



-21 
-5 
-45 
-37 
•312 
452 



•151 
105 
-13 

• 381 

209 

424 

-56 

14 



054 
548 
312 
131 
522 
151 
782 
132 
618 
719 
611 
125 
215 
338 
160 
972 
215 

306 
207 
692 
435 
607 
864 
293 
590 
232 
980 
762 



639 
213 
541 
301 
328 
155 



396 
292 
198 
726 
391 
568 
831 
860 



-17 

-819 

-402 

595 

-462 

-195 

-570 

245 

-16 

234 

233 

319 

266 

-488 

-562 

326 

308 

733 

-87 

-361 

-855 

1589 

-893 

-610 

274 

81 

723 

29 

-826 

535 

935 

49 

-84 

-4 

-66 

-238 

-604 

644 

194 

90 

-666 

508 

-110 

-577 

254 

751 

-40 

-48 



953 

758 

020 

6JO 

,279 

680 

308 

261 

,381 

,300 

,867 

,151 

,636 

.915 

,696 

.306 

,743 

,829 

,722 

.022 

.798 

,173 

,985 

,054 

,804 

,435 

,148 

316 

,091 

,625 

,169 

, 331 

968 

224 

985 

107 

671 

,245 

,052 

724 

496 

338 

742 

180 

380 

998 

783 

254 



Unknown 

-41.829 
-41.829 



84 



Station 


Upper 




















Pair 


Total 


1 




2 




3 




4 




Unknown 


137- 


-136 


-347. 


.357 






-92 


.075 






-255 


.282 




136- 


-135 


751, 


.986 






167 


.692 






584 


.294 




135- 


-134 


254. 


.675 






43 


.340 






211 


.335 




134- 


-133 


-17. 


.505 






-49 


.479 






31 


.974 




133- 


-132 


-275, 


.610 


-62 , 


.079 


-50 


.229 






-163 


.301 




132- 


-131 


47, 


.487 


0, 


.918 










46 


.569 




131- 


-130 


-201. 


.601 


-172, 


.752 










-28 


.8 4,9 




130- 


-129 


-859, 


.335 


-372 , 


.501 










-486 


.834 




129- 


-128 


-227. 


.261 


-125. 


.401 










-101 


.860 




128- 


-127 


1189. 


.068 


615, 


.827 










573 


.242 




127- 


-126 


32, 


.850 


-31, 


.853 










64 


.703 




126- 


-125 


-668. 


.687 


-115, 


.284 


-266 


.296 






-287 


.106 




125- 


-124 


-321. 


.643 


-65, 


.382 


-154 


.028 






-102 


.232 




124- 


-12 3 


410, 


.355 


77, 


. 380 


146 


.825 






186 


.150 




123- 


-122 


-920, 


.672 






-472 


.545 






-448 


,12 7 




122- 


-121 


-451, 


,207 






-242 


.161 






-209 


.'045 




121- 


-120 


1003. 


,824 






516 . 


.353 






487, 


,470 




120- 


-119 


-1027. 


,494 






-549. 


.478 






-478, 


,016 




119- 


-118 


731. 


.727 






378, 


.167 






353, 


.560 




118- 


-117 


-847. 


,033 






-369 


.998 






-477, 


.039 




117- 


-116 


1222 . 


,520 






575 , 


.896 






646 , 


.625 




116- 


-115 


-521. 


,255 


-93. 


,599 


-189 , 


.117 






-238, 


,540 




115- 


-114 


1103. 


,503 


176 . 


,766 


398 , 


.088 






528, 


.650 




114- 


-113 


43. 


,142 


17. 


,733 


6 , 


.665 






18. 


. 744 




113- 


-112 


-436 . 


,984 


-80 , 


,173 


-171, 


.453 






-185 . 


. 353 




112- 


-111 


236. 


.777 






118, 


.241 






118, 


.536 




111- 


-110 


213. 


.247 


20 , 


,732 


67, 


,276 






125. 


.238 




110- 


-109 


-700 , 


.104 






-329 , 


.812 






-370 . 


.292 




109- 


-108 


388. 


.644 






181, 


,832 






206 , 


.812 




108- 


-107 


162. 


,938 






36 , 


,700 






76 , 


.238 




107- 


-106 


-51. 


.303 


-5 . 


.177 


5 , 


.204 






-51, 


.330 




106- 


-105 


210 . 


.170 


55 , 


,371 


28, 


.476 






126 , 


. 323 




105- 


-104 


237, 


.952 


104, 


,196 










133. 


,75 7 




104- 


-103 


243, 


.424 


138, 


, 396 






30 


.736 


74, 


.292 




103- 


-102 


-488, 


.411 


-240 , 


,418 






-63, 


.446 


-184 


.547 




102- 


-101 


165. 


.265 


244, 


.008 






26 . 


.150 


-104, 


.393 




101- 


-100 


631. 


.627 


130, 


.943 






114, 


.811 


385 


.872 




100- 


-099 


44, 


.894 


6 , 


.224 






12 . 


.749 


25 . 


.922 




099- 


-098 


226, 


.181 


171, 


.401 






61, 


.545 


-6 , 


.766 




098- 


-097 


-32 , 


.556 


10, 


.616 






-15, 


.004 


-28 , 


.169 




097- 


-096 


653, 


.104 


252, 


.598 






267, 


.535 


132 , 


.972 




096- 


-095 


-49 , 


.483 


-53, 


.238 






-4. 


.408 


3 


.163 




095- 


-094 


276 , 


.135 


131. 


. 361 






114 


.861 


29 , 


,963 




094- 


-093 


-821. 


.394 










-368, 


,426 


-452 . 


.923 




093- 


-092 


1259 


.124 










645 , 


.471 


613 . 


,652 




092- 


-091 


599. 


.012 










341, 


,112 


79 . 


.160 


178 .740 


091- 


-090 


-91. 


.736 










-77, 


.805 


-13 . 


.931 




090- 


-089 


-353 


.327 










-206 , 


,171 


-147. 


.656 




039- 


-088 


-520 


.306 


-79, 


.558 






-322 


,667 


-118, 


.082 




038- 


-087 


-949 


.172 


-28 


.527 






-505 , 


.227 


-415, 


.418 




087- 


-086 





.578 










-0 , 


,578 








Total 


1316 


.051 





















85 



Mass Transport 2 8° 15 . ' S 



Station 


Intermediate 




Pair 


Total 


5 


185-184 






184-183 


0.950 


.950 


183-182 


2 .735 


2.735 


182-181 


.953 


0.953 


181-180 


-0.061 


-0.061 


180-179 


-0.378 


-0.378 


179-178 


2.603 


2 .603 


178-177 


-2 .708 


-2 .708 


177-176 


1.258 


1.258 


175-175 


-0 .679 


-0.679 


175-174 


-0 .603 


-0.603 


174-173 


-0.428 


-0 .428 


173-172 


-0.809 


-0.809 


172-171 


0.705 


.705 


171-170 


6 .475 


6 .475 


170-169 


-2.651 


-2 .651 


169-168 


-1.625 


-1.625 


168-167 


.103 


.10 3 


167-166 


-0 . 332 


-0 . 332 


166-165 


1.738 


1.738 


165-164 


5 .066 


5 .066 


164-163 


-9 .265 


-9 .265 


163-162 


5 .381 


5. 331 


162-161 


1.111 


1.111 


161-160 


-1.833 


-1.833 


160-159 


0.672 


.672 


159-158 


-2 .522 


-2 .522 


158-157 


-2.341 


-2 . 341 


157-156 


2.473 


2 .473 


156-155 


-0 .001 


-0 .001 


155-154 


-0 .193 


-0 .193 


154-153 


.048 


.048 


153-152 


-3.154 


-3.154 


152-151 


0.753 


0.753 


151-150 


0.525 


.525 


150-149 


-0.334 


-0 .334 


149-148 


2 .873 


2.873 


148-147 


-2 .962 


-2 .962 


147-146 


-0. 370 


-0. 370 


146-145 


-0 .19 5 


-0 .195 


145-144 


1.576 


1.576 


144-143 


-0.815 


-0.815 


143-142 


-0.545 


-0 .545 


142-141 


1.461 


1.461 


141-140 


-1.432 


-1.432 


140-139 


-1.875 


-1.875 


139-138 


-0.415 


-0.415 


133-137 


0. 336 


.336 



86 



Station 


Intermediate 




Pair 


Total 


5 


137-136 


-0.001 


-0.001 


136-135 


-0.211 


-0.211 


135-134 


-0.320 


-0.320 


134-133 


-0.428 


-0.428 


133-132 


-0.273 


-0.273 


132-131 


-1.339 


-1.339 


131-130 


0.786 


0.786 


130-129 


0.540 


.540 


129-128 


-0 .792 


-0.792 


128-127 


.361 


0.361 


127-126 


-0.898 


-0.898 


126-125 


1.596 


1.596 


125-124 


-1.107 


-1.107 


124-123 


.222 


0.222 


123-122 


.059 


0.059 


122-121 


0.062 


.062 


121-120 


-0 .679 


-0 .679 


120-119 


0.107 


.107 


119-118 


1.112 


1.112 


118-117 


-0 .697 


-0 .697 


117-116 


-1.020 


-1.020 


116-115 


.873 


0.873 


115-114 


-0.991 


-0 .991 


114-113 


-0.177 


-0.177 


113-112 


0.16 7 


.167 


112-111 


.181 


.181 


111-110 


-1.688 


-1.688 


110-109 


.514 


0.514 


109-108 


-0 .038 


-0.038 


108-107 


-0.179 


-0.179 


107-106 


.116 


0.116 


106-105 


-0 .144 


-0.144 


105-104 


-0.256 


-0 .256 


104-103 


-0.806 


-0 .806 


103-102 


0.289 


.289 


102-101 


-0 .125 


-0.125 


101-100 


-0.605 


-0 .605 


100-099 


-0 .572 


-0.572 


099-098 


0.034 


0.034 


098-097 


-0.877 


-0.877 


097-096 


-0 .307 


-0 . 307 


096-095 


0.165 


0.165 


095-094 


-0.665 


-0 .665 


094-093 


2 . 386 


2 .386 


093-092 


-1.747 


-1.747 


092-091 


-1.869 


-1.369 


091-090 


1.787 


1.787 


090-039 


.907 


0.907 


089-038 


2.208 


2 .208 


083-037 


-0 .376 


-0.376 


087-086 







Total -3.44 

87 



Salt Transport 2 8° 15.0 'S 



Station 


Intermediate 






Pair 


Total 




5 


185-184 








184-183 


32 .766 


32 . 


,766 


183-182 


94.625 


94. 


.625 


182-181 


32.991 


32. 


.991 


181-180 


-2.092 


-2 . 


.092 


180-179 


-13.072 


-13, 


.072 


179-178 


89 .943 


89. 


.943 


178-177 


-93.616 


-93, 


.616 


177-176 


43.492 


43. 


.492 


176-175 


-23.465 


-23. 


.465 


175-174 


-20 .851 


-20 , 


.851 


174-173 


-14. 774 


-14. 


.774 


173-172 


-27.849 


-27, 


.849 


172-171 


24.288 


24, 


.288 


171-170 


223.906 


223, 


.906 


170-169 


-91.698 


-91, 


.698 


169-168 


-56 .198 


-56 . 


.198 


168-167 


3.567 


3, 


.567 


167-166 


-11.457 


-11. 


.457 


166-165 


60 .039 


60, 


.039 


165-164 


175 .054 


175, 


,054 


164-163 


-320 .065 


-320. 


.065 


163-162 


185 .808 


185 . 


.808 


162-161 


38.349 


38 


.349 


161-160 


-63.321 


-63 


.321 


160-159 


23.186 


23 


.186 


159-158 


-87.084 


-87 


.084 


158-157 


-80.845 


-80 


.845 


157-156 


85.120 


85 


.120 


156-155 


-0 .041 


-0 . 


.041 


155-154 


-6 .636 


-6 


.636 


154-153 


1.648 


1. 


.648 


153-152 


-109.077 


-109. 


.077 


152-151 


26 .035 


26 


.035 


151-150 


13.107 


18 


.107 


150-149 


-11.552 


-11 


.552 


149-148 


99.185 


99. 


.185 


148-147 


-102 . 355 


-102 


.355 


147-146 


-12 .740 


-12 


.740 


146-145 


-6 .699 


-6 


.699 


145-144 


54.367 


54 


.367 


144-143 


-23.144 


-28 


.144 


143-142 


-13.801 


-18 


.801 


142-141 


50 .430 


50 


.430 


141-140 


-49 .405 


-49 


.405 


140-139 


-64.661 


-64 


.661 


139-138 


-14.301 


-14 


.301 


138-137 


11.581 


11 


.581 



88 



Station 


Intermediate 




Pair 


Total 


5 


137-136 


-0.033 


-0.033 


136-135 


-7.269 


-7.269 


135-134 


-11.029 


-11.029 


134-133 


-14.781 


-14.781 


133-132 


-9.406 


-9 .406 


132-131 


-46.181 


-46 .181 


131-130 


27.096 


27.096 


130-129 


18.628 


18 .628 


129-128 


-27.321 


-27.321 


128-127 


12.455 


12.455 


127-126 


-30.972 


-30 .972 


126-125 


55.077 


55 .077 


125-124 


-38.178 


-38.178 


124-123 


7.627 


7.627 


123-122 


2.035 


2 .035 


122-121 


2 .153 


2 .153 


121-120 


-23.441 


-23.441 


120-119 


3.748 


3.748 


119-118 


38.332 


38.332 


118-117 


-24.050 


-24.050 


117-116 


-35 .176 


-35 .176 


116-115 


30.09 8 


30 .098 


115-114 


-34.184 


-34.184 


114-113 


-6.098 


-6.098 


113-112 


5 .750 


5 .750 


112-111 


6 .247 


6 .247 


111-110 


-58.287 


-58.287 


110-109 


17.753 


17.753 


109-108 


-1. 345 


-1.345 


108-107 


-6.168 


-6 .168 


107-106 


4.012 


4.012 


106-105 


-4.962 


-4.962 


105-104 


-8.861 


-8.861 


104-103 


-27. 839 


-27.839 


103-102 


9.986 


9 .986 


102-101 


-4.271 


-4.271 


101-100 


-20 .962 


-20 .962 


100-099 


-19 .735 


-19 .735 


099-098 


1.173 


1.173 


098-097 


-30.297 


-30.297 


097-096 


-10.654 


-10 .654 


096-095 


5.687 


5 .687 


095-094 


-23.030 


-23.030 


094-093 


82 .544 


82 .544 


093-092 


-60 .443 


-60 .443 


092-091 


-64.654 


-64.654 


091-090 


61.826 


61.826 


090-089 


31.419 


31.419 


089-083 


76 . 380 


76 .380 


088-087 


-12 .956 


-12.956 


087-036 






Total 


-113.90 





89 



Heat Transport 2 3° 15.0 'S 



Station 


Intermediate 






Pair 


Total 


5 




185-184 








184-183 


263.562 


263. 


562 


183-182 


755.656 


755. 


656 


182-181 


263.393 


263. 


393 


181-180 


-16.916 


-16. 


916 


180-179 


-104.651 


-104. 


651 


179-178 


720.120 


720. 


120 


178-177 


-748.827 


-748. 


827 


177-176 


348.113 


348. 


113 


176-175 


-187.809 


-187. 


809 


175-174 


-166.640 


-166. 


640 


174-173 


-118.945 


-118. 


945 


173-172 


-224.707 


-224. 


707 


172-171 


195.964 


195 


964 


171-170 


1789.362 


1789. 


362 


170-169 


-732.697 


-732. 


697 


169-168 


-449. 296 


-449. 


296 


168-167 


28.970 


28 


970 


167-166 


-93.008 


-93 


008 


166-165 


480.973 


480 


973 


165-164 


1400.453 


1400 


453 


164-163 


-2562.264 


-2562 


264 


163-162 


1488.644 


1488 


644 


162-161 


307.375 


307 


375 


161-160 


-506.477 


-506 


477 


160-159 


185.725 


185 


725 


159-158 


-697.062 


-697 


062 


158-157 


-647.250 


-647 


250 


157-156 


689.142 


689 


142 


156-155 


-0.305 


-0 


305 


155-154 


-53.862 


-53 


862 


154-153 


13.364 


13 


364 


153-152 


-870.377 


-870 


377 


152-151 


207.858 


207 


858 


151-150 


145.120 


145 


.120 


150-149 


-92.245 


-92 


.245 


149-148 


793.647 


793 


.647 


148-147 


-817.954 


-817 


.954 


147-146 


-102.711 


-102 


.711 


146-145 


-53.799 


-53 


.799 


145-144 


435.331 


435 


.331 


144-143 


-225.018 


-225 


.018 


143-142 


-150.496 


-150 


.496 


142-141 


403.450 


403 


.450 


141-140 


-395.384 


-395 


.384 


140-139 


-517.744 


-517 


. 744 


139-138 


-114.376 


-114 


.376 


138-137 


92.485 


92 


.485 



90 



Station 


Intermediate 






Pair 


Total 


5 




137-136 


-0.014 


-0. 


014 


136-135 


-58.420 


-58. 


420 


135-134 


-88.115 


-88. 


115 


134-133 


-117.669 


-117. 


669 


133-132 


-75.838 


-75. 


838 


132-131 


-369.677 


-369. 


677 


131-130 


217.186 


217. 


186 


130-129 


148.881 


148. 


881 


129-128 


-219.077 


-219. 


077 


128-127 


100.146 


100. 


146 


127-126 


-247.876 


-247. 


876 


126-125 


440.609 


440. 


609 


125-124 


-305.658 


-305. 


658 


124-123 


61.348 


61. 


348 


123-122 


16.155 


16. 


155 


122-121 


16.809 


16. 


809 


121-120 


-186.898 


-186 


898 


120-119 


28.727 


28 


727 


119-118 


307.278 


307 


278 


118-117 


-192.859 


-192 


859 


117-116 


-281.343 


-281 


343 


116-115 


241.140 


241 


140 


115-114 


-273.082 


-273 


082 


114-113 


-48.719 


-48 


719 


113-112 


45.917 


45 


917 


112-111 


49.789 


49 


789 


111-110 


-465.416 


-465 


416 


110-109 


141.460 


141 


460 


109-108 


-10.235 


-10 


235 


108-107 


-49.019 


-49 


019 


107-106 


31.652 


31 


652 


106-105 


-39.318 


-39 


318 


105-104 


-70.448 


-70 


448 


104-103 


-222.765 


-222 


765 


103-102 


79.439 


79 


.439 


102-101 


-35.790 


-35 


790 


101-100 


-165.202 


-165 


.202 


100-099 


-157.878 


-157 


.878 


099-098 


9.378 


9 


378 


098-097 


-242.507 


-242 


507 


097-096 


-83.919 


-83 


.919 


096-095 


45.667 


45 


.667 


095-094 


-132.606 


-132 


.606 


094-093 


656.704 


656 


.704 


093-092 


-480.336 


-480 


.336 


092-091 


-515.086 


-515 


.086 


091-090 


492.901 


492 


.901 


090-039 


249.374 


249 


.374 


089-038 


608.284 


608 


.284 


088-087 


-105.954 


-105 


.954 


087-086 








Total 


-945.001 







91 



Mass Transport 28° 15.' S 

Deep/ 

Station Bottom 

Pair Total 6 7 8 9 

185-184 

184-183 

183-182 6.887 6.887 

182-181 9.163 1.815 2.025 5.323 

181-180 3.963 1.038 1.552 1.373 

180-179 -3.671 -0.366 -0.834 -2.471 

179-178 6.198 1.956 1.850 2.392 

178-177 -1.990 -1.990 

177-176 0.724 0.724 

176-175 -0.772 -0.772 

175-174 

174-173 

173-172 

172-171 

171-170 

170-169 -6.917 -6.917 

169-168 -4.109 -4.109 

168-167 

167-166 

166-165 2.169 2.169 

165-164 5.057 5.057 

164-163 -5.374 -5.374 

163-162 5.019 5.019 

162-161 3.168 3.168 

161-160 -7.460 -7.460 

160-159 2.130 2.130 

159-158 -7.425 -5.440 -1.984 

158-157 -4.330 -4.330 

157-156 

156-155 

155-154 

154-153 

153-152 

152-151 3.551 2.067 1.484 

151-150 9.468 1.076 2.584 5.808 

150-149 5.568 -0.805 -0.196 5.785 0.784 

149-148 23.584 6.565 3.274 10.740 3.005 

148-147 -20.513 -6.073 -6.574 -7.866 

147-146 -0.245 0.131 -0.283 -0.083 

146-145 -0.787 -0.859 -0.083 -0.347 0.502 

145-144 13.389 3.007 3.452 4.433 2.497 

144-143 -7.424 -2.439 -2.362 -1.126 -0.996 

143-142 0.537 -0.618 -0.093 0.912 0.336 

142-141 11.170 2.832 2.972 3.345 1.522 

141-140 -6.072 -2.832 -3.352 0.191 -0.078 

140-139 -24.599 -4.890 -8.259 -11.450 

139-133 -2.767 -1.065 -1.040 -0.662 

138-137 1.171 0.511 0.392 0.268 



92 





Deep/ 








Station 


Bottom 








Pair 


Total 


6 


7 8 


9 


137-136 


5 .609 


.999 


1.419 3.192 




136-135 


-6 .598 


-1.215 


-2.135 -3.248 




135-134 


-3.520 


-0. 391 


-2.174 -0.524 


-0.431 


134-133 


-5.782 


-1.707 


-2.111 


-1.963 


133-132 


4.839 


.990 


2 .403 


1.446 


132-131 


-13.116 


-3.892 


-6.628 -1.497 


-1.100 


131-130 


5.262 


1.677 


2.386 0.683 


.516 


130-129 


2 .332 


1.385 


.947 




129-128 


-1.549 


-1.010 


-0 .539 




128-127 


-0.754 


0.127 


-0 .882 




127-126 


-2.283 


-1.924 


-0.359 




126-125 


8.191 


2 .713 


5 .478 




125-124 


-7.174 


-2 .039 


-5.135 




124-123 


0.576 


0.123 


.454 




123-122 


1.435 


.487 


0.948 


' 


122-121 


1.878 


.583 


1.295 




121-120 


-5.650 


-1.979 


-3.671 




120-119 


3.584 


1.237 


2 .347 




119-118 


2 .925 


1.266 


1.658 




118-117 


-2 .039 


-0 .918 


-1.121 




117-116 


-4.513 


-2 .509 


-2 .003 




116-115 


2 .490 


1.096 


1. 395 




115-114 


-3.935 


-2 .202 


-1.733 




114-113 


-1.028 


-1.028 






113-112 


0.140 


.140 






112-111 


1.978 


1.343 


.636 




111-110 


-5 .244 


-5 .244 






110-109 


1.932 


1.932 






109-108 


-1.712 


-1.712 


_ 




108-107 


-0.405 


-0 .030 


-0 .375 




107-106 


3.145 


1.185 


1.961 




106-105 


-0 .628 


-0 .114 


-0.514 




105-104 


-0 .670 


-0 .208 


-0.462 




104-103 


-1.364 


-0 .677 


-0.687 




103-102 


1.729 


.802 


.928 




102-101 


.371 


0.267 


.104 




101-100 


-3.310 


-1.802 


-1.508 




100-099 


1.277 


.592 


.685 




099-098 


0.789 


0.051 


0.738 




098-097 


-0.827 


-0.615 


-0 .212 




097-096 


-3.672 


-0 . 883 


-2 .789 




096-095 


-0.101 


-0.199 


.099 




095-094 


-2 .896 


-1.208 


-1.688 




094-09 3 


11.643 


4.878 


6 .765 




093-092 


-6 .670 


-2 .972 


-3.698 




092-091 


-12 .418 


-4. 357 


-8.061 




091-090 


12 .196 


4.563 


7.628 




090-089 


6 .111 


1.504 


4.607 




039-088 


7.804 


3.638 


4.166 




038-037 










037-086 










Total 


-1.161 









93 











Salt 


Transport 


28° 


15.0 


'S 








Deep/ 


















Station 


Bottom 


















Pair 


Total 




6 




7 




8 




9 


185- 


■184 






















184- 


-183 






















183- 


• 182 


239. 


030 


239. 


030 














182- 


• 181 


318. 


244 


62 


999 


70 


360 






184 


885 


181- 


• 180 


137. 


609 


36 


023 


53 


895 






47 


691 


180- 


• 179 


-127. 


491 


-12 


711 


-28 


955 






-85 


825 


179- 


-178 


215. 


173 


67 


849 


64 


242 






83 


081 


178- 


-177 


-68. 


977 


-68 


977 














177- 


• 176 


25 


101 


25 


101 














176- 


• 175 


-26 


785 


-26 


785 














175- 


• 174 






















174- 


■ 173 






















173- 


• 172 






















172- 


-171 






















171- 


• 170 






















170- 


-169 


-239 


842 


-239 


842 














169- 


-168 


-142 


484 


-142 


484 














168- 


• 167 






















16 7- 


-166 






















166- 


-165 


75 


159 


75 


159 














165- 


-164 


175 


249 


175 


249 














164- 


-163 


-186 


190 


-186 


190 














16 3- 


• 162 


173 


856 


173 


856 














162- 


-161 


109 


826 


109 


826 














161- 


-160 


-258 


680 


-258 


680 














160- 


-159 


73 


860 


73 


860 














159- 


-158 


-257 


401 


-188 


577 


-68 


825 










158- 


-157 


-150 


082 


-150 


082 














157- 


-156 






















156- 


-155 






















155- 


-154 






















154- 


-153 






















153- 


-152 






















152- 


-151 


123 


.159 


71 


.650 


51 


.509 










151- 


-150 


328 


.723 


37 


.279 


89 


.721 






201 


.723 


150- 


-149 


19 3 


.382 


-27 


.871 


-6 


.814 


200 


.846 


27 


.221 


149- 


-148 


818 


.291 


227 


.476 


113 


.631 


372 


.827 


104 


.357 


148- 


-147 


-711 


.262 


-210 


.385 


-228 


.097 






-273 


.145 


147. 


-146 


-8 


.530 


4 


.526 


-9 


.992 






-3 


.064 


146- 


-145 


-27 


.255 


-29 


.771 


-2 


.883 


-12 


.052 


17 


.450 


145- 


-144 


464 


.597 


104 


.193 


119 


.776 


153 


882 


86 


.746 


144- 


-14 3 


-257 


.494 


-84 


.515 


-99 


.312 


-39 


.093 


-34 


.574 


143- 


-142 


18 


.696 


-21 


. 398 


-3 


.235 


31 


.669 


11 


.661 


142 


-141 


387 


.501 


98 


.100 


103 


.100 


133 


.472 


52 


.830 


141- 


-140 


-210 


.515 


-98 


.122 


-116 


.296 


6 


.618 


-2 


.715 


140. 


-139 


-853 


.450 


-169 


.417 


-286 


.561 


-397 


.472 






139 


-138 


-95 


.953 


-36 


.893 


-36 


.089 


-22 


971 






133 


-137 


40 


.595 


17 


.689 


13 


.601 


9 


.305 







94 





Deep/ 






Station 


Bottom 






Pair 


Total 


6 


7 8 9 


137-136 


194.610 


34.599 


49.211 110.800 


136-135 


-228.902 


-42.094 


-74.055 -112.754 


135-134 


-122 .107 


-13.542 


-75.409 -18.198 -14.958 


134-133 


-200.495 


-59 .156 


-73.225 -68.114 


133-132 


167.813 


34.304 


83.345 50.163 


132-131 


-454.757 


-134.788 


-229.866 -51.949 -38.155 


131-130 


182.421 


58.072 


82.736 23.697 17.916 


130-129 


80 .810 


47.976 


32 .834 


129-128 


-53.662 


-34.958 


-18.703 


128-127 


-26.177 


4.411 


-30 .588 


127-126 


-79.082 


-66 .632 


-12.450 


126-125 


283.958 


93.972 


189 .987 


125-124 


-248.739 


-70 .645 


-178.094 


124-123 


19.987 


4.249 


15.739 


123-122 


49.745 


16 .879 


32 .866 


122-121 


65 .108 


20 .189 


44.919 


121-120 


-195.876 


-68.557 


-127.319 


120-119 


124.229 


42 .855 


81.374 


119-118 


101.363 


43.863 


57.500 


118-117 


-70.684 


-31.805 


-38.879 


117-116 


-156.379 


-86 .912 


-69 .467 


116-115 


86 .306 


37.947 


43.359 


115-114 


-136 .342 


-76 .270 


-60 .073 


114-113 


-35.617 


-35.617 




113-112 


4.832 


4.832 




112-111 


68.560 


46 .521 


22 .039 


111-110 


-181.709 


-181.709 




110-109 


66 .937 


66 .937 




109-108 


-59 .356 


-59 .356 




108-107 


-14.051 


-1.046 


-13.005 


107-106 


109 .032 


41.046 


67 .986 


106-105 


-21.779 


-3.952 


-17.827 


105-104 


-23.236 


-7.209 


-16 .027 


104-103 


-47.278 


-23.463 


-23.315 


103-102 


59.943 


27.769 


32 .174 


102-101 


12 .841 


9.234 


3.608 


101-100 


-114.719 


-62.417 


-52.301 


100-099 


44.264 


20 .497 


23.767 


099-098 


27. 369 


1.757 


25 .612 


098-097 


-28.640 


-21. 304 


-7.336 


097-096 


-127.325 


-30 .591 


-96 .735 


096-095 


-3.479 


-6 .905 


3.426 


095-094 


-10.421 


-41.360 


-58.561 


094-09 3 


403.729 


169.027 


234. 703 


093-092 


-231.256 


-102 .974 


-128.282 


092-091 


-430.559 


-150.965 


-279 .594 


091-090 


422 .398 


153.290 


264.608 


090-089 


211,917 


52 .100 


159 .816 


089-088 


270 .538 


126 .065 


144.473 


088-037 








087-086 









Total -33.10 

95 











Heat 1 


?rans 


port 2E 


r 15 


.0'S 












Deep/ 


















Station 


Bottom 


















Pair 


Total 


6 




7 




8 




9 




185- 


-184 






















184- 


-183 






















183- 


-182 


1896 


185 


1896 


185 










s 




182- 


•181 


2516 


485 


499 


619 


556 


537 






1460 


329 


181- 


-180 


1089 


193 


285 


808 


426 


439 






376 


945 


180- 


-179 


-1008 


104 


-100 


834 


-229 


124 






-678 


146 


179- 


•178 


1703 


581 


538 


513 


508 


338 . 






656 


729 


178- 


-177 


-548 


469 


-548 


469 














177- 


• 176 


199 


612 


199 


612 














176- 


■ 175 


-212 


584 


-212 


584 














175- 


-174 






















174- 


-173 






















173- 


-172 






















172- 


•171 






















171- 


-170 






















170- 


• 169 


-1903 


480 


-1903 


480 














169- 


• 168 


-1130 


584 


-1130 


584 














168- 


-167 






















167- 


-166 






















166- 


-165 


596 


999 


596 


999 














165- 


-164 


1391 


913 


1391 


913 














164- 


-163 


-1480 


598 


-1480 


598 














163- 


-162 


1382 


610 


1332 


610 














162- 


-161 


871 


637 


871 


637 














161- 


-160 


-2052 


181 


-2052 


181 














160- 


-159 


586 


085 


586 


085 














159- 


-158 


-2042 


877 


-1497 


168 


-545 


709 










158- 


-157 


-1191 


515 


-1191 


515 














157- 


-156 






















156- 


-155 






















155- 


-154 






















154- 


-153 






















153- 


-152 






















152- 


-151 


976 


.953 


568 


955 


407 


998 










151- 


-150 


2599 


.808 


296 


.123 


710 


059 






1593 


627 


150- 


-149 


1525 


971 


-221 


479 


-54 


031 


1586 


402 


215 


080 


149- 


-148 


6476 


.836 


1806 


919 


899 


727 


2945 


276 


824 


917 


148- 


-147 


-5638 


.027 


-1671 


904 


-1806 


719 






-2159 


408 


147- 


-146 


-67 


. 325 


36 


.019 


-79 


124 






-24 


220 


146- 


-145 


-216 


.736 


-236 


.526 


-22 


398 


-95 


188 


137 


876 


145- 


-144 


3676 


.781 


827 


863 


948 


551 


1215 


387 


684 


980 


144- 


-143 


-2040 


.084 


-671 


.386 


-786 


677 


-303 


776 


-273 


244 


143- 


-142 


146 


.594 


-170 


.045 


-25 


685 


250 


156 


92 


167 


142- 


-141 


3068 


.235 


779 


.411 


316 


325 


1054 


373 


417 


626 


141- 


-140 


-1670 


.021 


-779 


.534 


-921 


308 


52 


283 


-21 


462 


140- 


-139 


-6755 


.918 


-1345 


.923 


-2269 


410 


-3140 


589 






139- 


-138 


-750 


.498 


-293 


.030 


-235 


874 


-181 


594 






138- 


-137 


321 


.826 


140 


.527 


107 


734 


73 


566 







96 



Station 
Pair 

137-136 
136-135 
135-134 
134-133 
133-132 
132-131 
131-130 
130-129 
129-128 
128-127 
127-126 
126-125 
125-124 
124-123 
123-122 
122-121 
121-120 
120-119 
119-118 
118-117 
117-116 
116-115 
115-114 
114-113 
113-112 
112-111 
111-110 
110-109 
109-108 
108-107 
107-106 
106-105 
105-104 
104-103 
103-102 
102-101 
101-100 
100-099 
099-098 
098-097 
097-096 
096-095 
095-094 
094-093 
093-092 
092-091 
091-090 
090-089 
089-088 
088-087 

Total 



Deep/ 

Bottom 

Total 



1540. 

•1812. 

-967, 

-1589, 

1329. 

•3605, 

1446 , 

641, 

-426. 

-207. 

-628. 

2251, 

•1972, 

158. 

394, 

516. 

•1553. 

985. 

804, 

-560 , 

•1241, 

684, 

•1082 , 

-282. 

38, 

544, 

•1442, 

531, 

-471, 

-111, 

865. 

-172 . 

-184, 

-375 , 

475, 

101, 

-910. 

351. 

216 . 

-227, 

-1009. 

-27 

-796 

3201 

-1834 

-3415 

3353 

1680 

2143 



247 
118 
218 
171 
830 
16 3 
225 
569 
198 
18 5 
447 
876 
116 
409 
485 
306 
504 
250 
246 
870 
326 
906 
375 
955 
422 
278 
935 
512 
042 
401 
099 
735 
392 
238 
648 
970 
525 
199 
927 
486 
742 
700 
449 
949 
374 
600 
873 
293 
952 



274, 
-334, 
-107, 
-469, 

272, 
•1071, 

461, 

381, 

-277. 

35. 

-529. 

746 . 

-561, 

33, 

134. 

160 . 
-544. 

340 , 

348 
-252 
-690 

301 

-606 

-282 

38 

369 
•1442 

531 

-471 

-8 

325 

-31 

-57 
-186 

220 

73 

-495 

162 

13 

-169 

-243 

-54 
-332 
1342 
-317 
-1199 
1256 

413 

999 



765 
243 
576 
864 
423 
137 
429 
285 
936 
113 
621 
694 
273 
774 
088 
419 
576 
395 
500 
698 
633 
534 
038 
955 
422 
463 
935 
512 
042 
268 
927 
359 
307 
393 
533 
364 
846 
756 
914 
272 
057 
828 
406 
333 
9.10 
580 
951 
891 
905 



389 

-586 

-597 

-580 

660 

•1821 

655 

260 

-148 

-242 

-98 

1505 

•1410 

124 

260 

355 

-1008 

644 

455 

-308 

-550 

383 

-476 



-103 

539 

-141 

-127 

-188 

255 

28 

-414 

188. 

203 

-58 

-766 

27 

-464 

1859 

-1016 

-2216 

2096 

1266 

1144 



809 

627 

405 

233 

457 

249 

524 

284 

262 

299 

825' 

181 

843 

635 

397 

887 

928 

855 

747 

172 

693 

373 

337 



174.815 



133 
172 
377 
086 
845 
117 
606 
679 
443 
012 
213 
685 
128 
042 
616 
464 
020 
922 
401 
047 



8 

875 .673 
-891.247 
-143.899 



-410 .902 
187.488 



-118.339 
-539.074 

396 .950 
-3-01.875 

141.784 



-338.492 



97 



o 



Mass Transport 43 15.0 ' S 



Station 


Upper 


Pair 


Total 


001-002 





248 


002-003 


-3 


.281 


003-004 


-3 


.813 


004-005 


8 


.227 


005-006 


-1 


.921 


006-007 





.336 


007-008 


1 


.093 


008-009 


-0 


659 


009-010 


-0 


.557 


010-011 


-3 


413 


011-012 


3 


.870 


012-013 


-0 


.446 


013-014 





.458 


014-015 


-0 


.048 


015-016 


-0 


.533 


016-017 





.488 


017-018 


-0 


.549 


018-019 





.584 


019-020 





.036 


020-021 





.116 


021-022 


-0 


.657 


022-023 


-0 


.042 


023-024 





132 


024-025 


-0 


.194 


025-026 


-1 


.012 


026-027 


1 


.428 


027-028 





.553 


028-029 


-0 


134 


029-030 





730 


030-031 


-0 


488 


031-032 


-0 


275 


032-033 


-0 


789 


033-034 





811 


034-035 





232 


035-036 





151 


036-037 





069 


037-038 





121 


038-039 





440 


039-040 


-0 


394 


040-041 





430 


041-042 


-0 


161 


042-043 





101 


043-044 





331 


044-045 


-0 


.069 


045-046 





432 


046-047 


-0 


.598 


047-043 


-0 


.073 


048-049 





.372 



3 


4 


Unknown 




0.014 


.234 


0.331 


-2 .522 


-0 .428 




-2 .983 


-0 .830 




6.661 / 


1.567 


0.696 


-1.225 




0.10 5 


0.231 




0.670 


.423 




0.345 


-0.314 




0.464 


-0.093 




1.432 


-1.640 


-0 . 341 


1.130 


2 .405 


0.334 


0.177 


-0 .259 


-0 .010 


.194 


0.203 


.061 


.063 


.015 




.045 


-0 .298 


-0 .189 


0.337 


.019 


.133 


.356 


-0.042 


-0 .151 


.547 


.037 




.036 






.069 




.042 


.413 


-0 .030 


-0 .214 


.104 


-0 .032 


.084 


.131 


.025 


-0 .024 


.121 


-0 .074 


.001 


.451 


-0 .424 


-0.136 


.322 


. 346 


.260 


.279 


.231 


.043 


.067 


-0 .067 




.473 


.257 




.263 


-0 .146 


-0 .079 


.154 


-0 .121 




.605 


-0 .185 




.633 


.178 




.232 






0.151 






0.069 






.121 






.440 






.394 






.430 






.161 






.101 






. 331 






.069 






.432 






.598 






.073 






.372 







98 



Station 


Upper 


Pair 


Total 


049-050 





.149 


050-051 





.19 3 


051-052 


-0 


.249 


052-053 





.671 


053-054 





.462 


054-055 


-0 


.841 


055-056 





.775 


056-057 


-0 


.138 


057-058 


-0 


.314 


058-059 


-0 


.208 


059-060 





.272 


060-061 





430 


061-062 


-0 


069 


062-063 





.453 


063-064 





.287 


064-065 





.290 


065-066 





.035 


066-067 


-0 


.132 


067-068 


-0 


.019 


068-06-9 





.510 


069-070 


-0 


. 316 


070-071 


-0 


.614 


071-072 


-0 


.039 


072-073 





.562 


073-074 


-0 


.452 


074-075 


-0 


.235 


075-076 





.025 


076-077 


-0 


.058 


077-078 





.021 



Unknown 






• 





■0 



-0 

-0 

-0 





• 





-0 

■ 


■0 
•0 
•0 

-0 

• 

■ 


-0 



149 
193 
249 
671 
462 
841 
775 
138 
314 
208 
272 
430 
069 
453 
287 
290 
035 
132 
019 
510 
316 
614 
039 
562 
452 
191 
027 
000 
006 



-0 .043 
.051 

-0 .059 
.027 



Total 



3.128 



99 



Salt Transport 43" 15.0 'S 



Station 


Upper 


Pair 


Total 


001-002 


8 


772 


002-003 


-114 


684 


003-004 


-133 


689 


004-005 


288 


554 


005-006 


-66 


955 


006-007 


11 


676 


007-008 


38 


083 


008-009 


-22 


939 


009-010 


-19 


446 


010-011 


-119 


026 


011-012 


135 


073 


012-013 


-15 


548 


013-014 


15 


936 


014-015 


-1 


685 


015-016 


-18 


646 


016-017 


17 


055 


017-018 


-19 


154 


018-019 


20 


344 


019-020 


1 


260 


020-021 


3 


860 


021-022 


-22 


845 


022-023 


-1 


444 


023-024 


4 


602 


024-025 


-6 


750 


025-026 


-35 


287 


026-027 


49 


750 


027-028 


19 


187 


028-029 


-4 


652 


029-030 


25 


334 


030-031 


-16 


.937 


031-032 


-9 


529 


032-033 


-27 


381 


033-034 


28 


094 


034-035 


3 


.024 


035-036 


5 


.209 


036-037 


2 


.391 


037-038 


4 


.181 


038-039 


15 


159 


039-040 


-13 


572 


040-041 


14 


819 


041-042 


-5 


.547 


042-043 


3 


486 


043-044 


11 


402 


044-045 


-2 


.384 


045-046 


14 


.850 


046-047 


-20 


.552 


047-048 


-2 


.494 


048-049 


12 


.771 



3 


4 




Unknown 







490 


8 


.282 


-11.587 


-87 


945 


-15 


.151 




-104 


316 


-29 


.383 




233 


15-2 


55 


.402 


-24.396 


-42 


559 






3.679 


7 


998 






23.415 


14 


669 






-12.040 


-10 


899 






-16 .210 


-3 


236 






-50.108 


-57 


008 


-11 


.910 


39.615 


83 


767 


11 


691 


-6 .203 


-8 


997 


-0 


.348 


-6.781 


7 


032 


2 


.123 


-2.202 





.517 






-1.571 


-10 


.483 


-6 


592 


11.793 





.648 


4 


.615 


-12 .444 


-1 


.468 


-5 


.242 


19 .078 


1 


.266 






1.260 










2.399 






1 


.461 


-14. 364 


-1 


026 


-7 


.456 


-3 .609 


-1 


129 


3 


.293 


4.566 


-0 


877 


-0 


.842 


-4.212 


-2 


569 





.032 


-15 .792 


-14 


725 


-4 


. 770 


28 .664 


12 


014 


9 


.071 


9 .697 


3 


002 


1 


.487 


-2 . 325 


-2 


326 






16 .449 


8 


385 






-9 .138 


-5 


037 


_2 


.763 


-5.331 


-4 


198 






-20 .986 


-6 


396 






21.946 


6 


148 






8.024 










5.209 










2 .391 










4.181 










15 .159 










-13.572 










14.819 










-5 .547 










3.486 










11.402 










-2 . 384 










14.850 










-20 .552 










-2 .494 










12 .771 











100 



Station 


Upper 


Pair 


Total 


049-050 


5. 


.112 


050-051 


6, 


.630 


051-052 


-8. 


.538 


052-053 


22 , 


.980 


053-054 


15, 


.835 


054-055 


-28, 


.801 


055-056 


26 , 


,508 


056-057 


-4, 


,713 


057-058 


-10. 


.744 


058-059 


-7. 


.091 


059-060 


9, 


.288 


060-061 


14, 


.654 


061-062 


-2, 


.336 


062-063 


15. 


.438 


063-064 


9, 


.809 


064-065 


9, 


.893 


065-066 


1. 


.220 


066-067 


-4. 


.509 


067-068 


-0, 


.625 


068-069 


17, 


.339 


069-070 


-10, 


.740 


070-071 


-20, 


.881 


071-072 


-1. 


.316 


072-073 


19, 


,101 


073-074 


-15, 


. 340 


074-075 


-7, 


.967 


075-076 





.798 


076-077 


-1, 


.945 


077-078 





.687 


Total 


108, 


.452 



Unknown 



5 

6 

-8 

22 

15 

-28 

26 

-4, 

■10. 

-7. 

9. 

'14 

-2 

15 

9 

9 

1 

4 



17 

•10 

•20 

-1 

19 

•15 

-6 

-0 



-0 



112 
630 
538 
980 
835 
801 
508 
713 
744 
091 
288 
654 
336 
438 
809 
893 
220 
509 
625 
339 
740 
881 
316 
101 
340 
510 
926 
030 
227 



1.457 

1.724 

•1.975 

.914 



101 



Heat Transport 4 3° 15.0 'S 

Station Upper 

Pair Total 12 3 4 Unknown 

001-002 71.664 3.984 67.680 

002-003 -932.820 _714.964 -123.775 

003-004. -1087.272 -847.584 -239.688 

004-005 2345.615 1893. 4?9 452.187 

005-006 -544.725 -198.571 -346.153 

006-007 94.955 29.851 65.104 

007-008 310.611 191.225 119.386 

008-009 -186.937 -98.262 -88.675 

009-010 -158.889 -132.563 -26.325 

010-011 -970.212 -98.086 -408.330 -463.797 -98.086 

011-012 1100.436 -96.342 322.755 681.338 96.343 

"012-013 -126.594 -2.874 -50.507 -73.213 -2.874 

013-014 130.071 17.582 55.263 57.227 17.582 

014-015 -13.650 -17.861 4.211 

015-016 -152.733 -54.627 -12.763 -85.343 -54.627 

016-017 139.771 38.303 96.197 5.271 38.303 

017-018 -157.112 -43.383 -101.750 -11.969 -43.393 

018-019 166.915 156.589 10.326 

019-020 10.301 10.301 

020-021 31.804 12.126 19.678 12.126 

021-022 -187.893 -61.840 -117.697 -8.356 -61.840 

022-023 -11.388 27.209 -29.402 -9.195 27.209 

023-024 37.444 -6.933 37.234 7.144 -6.933 

024-025 -55.003 0.260 -34.341 -20.922 0.260 

025-026 -288.061 -39.289 -128.872 -119.900 -39.289 

026-027 406.792 74.883 234.072 97.338 74.883 

027-023 156.643 12.322 79.161 65.161 12.322 

028-029 -37.798 -18.851 -18.947 

029-030 206.969 134.613 72.356 

030-031 -138.520 -74.629 -41.018 -22.872 

031-032 -77.792 -43.596 -34.196 

032-033 -224.162 -172.071 -52.091 

033-034 230.121 130.041 50.080 

034-035 65.720 65.720 

035-036 43.092 43.092 

036-037 19.297 19.287 

037-038 34.448 34.448 

038-039 124.565 124.565 

039-040 -111.860 -111.860 

040-041 122.110 122.110 

041-042 -45.707 -45.707 

042-043 23.929 28.929 

043-044 93.442 93.442 

044-045 -19.429 -19.429 

045-046 122.009 122.009 

046-047 -169.482 -169.482 

047-048 -20.643 -20.643 

048-049 105.489 105.489 



102 



Station 
Pair 



Upper 
Total 



Unknown 



049- 
050. 
051- 
052- 
053- 
054- 
055- 
056- 
057- 
058- 
059- 
060- 
061- 
062- 
06 3- 
064- 
065- 
066- 
067- 
06 8. 
069- 
070- 
071- 
072- 
073- 
074- 
075- 
076- 
077- 



• 050 

• 051 

• 052 

• 053 
■054 

• 055 
•056 

• 057 
■058 

• 059 
■060 
•061 

• 062 
•063 
•064 
•065 

• 066 

• 067 

• 068 

• 069 
•070 
■071 
•072 

• 073 

• 074 

• 075 
•076 

• 077 
•078 



41, 

54. 

-71. 

190. 

130. 

-238, 

219, 

-38, 

-88. 

-58, 

76, 

121, 

-19. 

128, 

80, 

82. 

9, 

-37. 

-5 , 

144. 

-89 . 

-174, 

-11, 

159 , 

• 128, 

-66. 

7. 

-16 

6 . 



982 
848 
170 
263 
556 
046 
013 
878 
853 
830 
588 
595 
544 
080 
911 
182 
183 
292 
834 
629 
659 
049 
074 
270 
323 
385 
217 
803 
026 



41 

54 
-71 
190 
130 
•238 
219 
-38 
-88 
-58 

76 
121 
-19 
128 

80 

82 

9 

-37 

-5 
144 
-89 
• 174 
-11 
159 
•128 
-53 

-7 


-1 



982 
848 
170 
263 
556 
046 
013 
878 
853 
830 
588 
595 
544 
080 
911 
182 
183 
292 
834 
629 
659 
049 
074 
270 
323 
957 
489 
037 
781 



-12 .427 

14.707 

-16 .840 

7.807 



Total 



888.124 



103 



Mass Transport 43° 15.0'S 



Station 


Intermediate 




Pair 


Total 


5 


001-002 






002-003 


1.442 


1.442 


003-004 


-0.155 


-0.155 


004-005 


0.865 


0.865 


005-006 


-0.864 


-0.864 


006-007 


0.091 


0.091 


007-008 


0.114 


0.114 


008-009 


-0.104 


-0.104 


009-010 


-0.419 


-0.419 


010-011 


-0.308 


-0.308 


011-012 


0.582 


0.582 


012-013 


-0.284 


-0.284 


013-014 


0.505 


0.505 


014-015 


0.073 


0.073 


015-016 






016-017 






017-018 






018-019 






019-020 






020-021 






021-022 






022-023 






023-024 






024-025 






025-026 


-0.613 


' -0.613 


026-027 


0.303 


0.303 


027-028 


0.717 


0.717 


028-029 


0.302 


0.302 


029-030 


0.041 


0.041 


030-031 


-0.258 


-0.258 


031-032 


-0.454 


-0.454 


032-033 


-0.137 


-0.137 


033-034 


-0.095 


-0.095 


034-035 


0.791 


0.791 


035-036 


-0.476 


-0.476 


036-037 


0.394 


0.394 


037-038 


0.053 


0.053 


038-039 


0.271 


0.271 


039-040 


0.158 


0.158 


040-041 


-0.187 


-0.187 


041-042 


-0.155 


-0.155 


042-043 


-0.038 


-0.038 


043-044 


0.661 


0.661 


044-045 


-0.206 


-0.206 


045-046 


0.435 


0.485 


046-047 


-0.488 


-0.483 


047-048 


0.131 


0.131 


048-049 


0.288 


0.288 


049-050 


0.032 


0.032 



104 



Station 


Intermediate 




Pair 


Total 


5 


050-051 


0.217 


0.217 


051-0 52 


0.930 


0.930 


052-053 


-0.028 


-0.028 


053-054 


0.438 


0.438 


054-055 


-0.838 


-0.838 


055-056 


0.968 


0.968 


056-057 


-0.252 


-0.252 


057-058 


-0.127 


-0.127 


058-059 


-0.321 


-0.321 


059-060 


0.780 


0.780 


060-061 


0.465 


0.465 


061-062 


-0.154 


-0.154 


062-063 


0.516 


0.516 


063-064 


0.654 


0.654 


064-065 


-0.232 


-0.232 


065-066 


0.680 


0.680 


066-067 


-0.183 


-0.183 


067-068 


1.901 


1.901 


068-069 


-1.017 


-1.017 


069-070 


-0.062 


-0.062 


070-071 


-0.387 


-0.376 


071-072 


-0.165 


-0.165 


072-073 


0.952 


0.952 


073-074 


-0.011 


-0.011 


074-075 


-0.497 


-0.497 


075-076 


-0.081 


-0.081 


076-077 


0.363 


0.363 


077-078 







Total 7.771 



105 



Salt Transport 43° 15.0'S 



Station 


Intermediate 




Pair 


Total 


5 


001-002 






002-003 


50.029 


50.029 


003-004 


-5.302 


-5.302 


004-005 


29.689 


29.689 


005-006 


-29.686 


-29.686 


006-007 


3.092 


3.092 


007-008 


3.862 


3.862 


008-009 


-3.508 


-3.508 


009-010 


-14.480 


-14.480 


010-011 


-10.584 


-10.584 


011-012 


20.028 


20.028 


012-013 


-9.782 


-9.782 


013-014 


17.419 


17.419 


014-015 


2.514 


2.514 


015-016 






016-017 






017-018 






018-019 






019-020 






020-021 






021-022 






022-023 






023-024 






024-025 


0.004 


0.004 


025-026 


-21.162 


-21.162 


026-027 


10.448 


10.448 


027-028 


24.719 


24.719 


028-029 


10.436 


10.436 


029-030 


1.335 


1.335 


030-031 


-8.894 


-8.894 


031-032 


-15.589 


-15.589 


032-033 


-4.639 


-4.639 


033-034 


-3.352 


-3.352 


034-035 


27.271 


27.271 


035-036 


-16.459 


-16.459 


036-037 


13.555 


13.555 


037-038 


1.815 


1.815 


038-039 


9.245 


9.245 


039-040 


5.530 


5.530 


040-041 


-6.522 


-6.522 


041-042 


-1.840 


-1.340 


042-043 


-1.313 


-1.313 


043-044 


22.680 


22.680 


044_045 


-7.049 


-7.049 


045-046 


16. 599 


16. 599 


046-047 


-16.718 


-16.718 


047-048 


4.550 


4.550 


048-049 


9.893 


9.393 


049-050 


1.016 


1.016 






106 



Station 


Intermediate 




Pair 


Total 


5 


050-051 


7.442 


7.442 


051-052 


32.048 


32.048 


052-053 


-1.051 


-1.051 


053-054 


15.000 


15.000 


054-055 


-28.686 


-28.686 


055-056 


33.123 


33.123 


056-057 


-8.591 


-8.591 


057-058 


-4.309 


-4.309 


058-059 


-11.016 


-11.016 


059-060 


26.790 


26.790 


060-061 


15.835 


15.835 


061-062 


-5.237 


-5.237 


062-063 


17.646 


17.646 


063-064 


22.400 


22.400 


064-065 


-4.623 


-4.623 


065-066 


23.262 


23.262 


066-067 


-6.243 


-6.243 


067-068 


65.189 


65.189 


068-069 


-35.031 


-35.031 


069-070 


-2.083 


-2.083 


070-071 


-12.879 


-12.879 


071-072 


-5.699 


-5.699 


072-073 


32.613 


32.613 


073-074 


-0.382 


-0.382 


074-075 


-17.043 


-17.043 


075-076 


-2.760 


-2.760 


076-077 


12.481 


12.481 


077-078 






Total 


267.046 





107 



Heat Transport 43° 15.0'S 



Station 


Intermediate 




Pair 
001-002 


Total 


5 






002-003 


389.663 


389.663 


003-004 


-47.113 


-47.113 


004-005 


253.564 


253.564 


005-006 


-247.554 


-247.554 


006-007 


27.281 


27.281 


007-008 


33.843 


33.843 


008-009 


-31.617 


-31.617 


009-010 


-116.469 


-116.469 


010-011 


-88.535 


-88.535 


011-012 


165.800 


165.800 


012-013 


-80.009 


-80.009 


013-014 


141.211 


141.211 


014-015 


20.415 


20.415 


015-016 






016-017 






017-018 






018-019 






019-020 






020-021 






021-022 






022-023 






023-024 






024-025 


0.036 


0.036 


025-026 


-171.659 


-171.659 


026-027 


84.928 


84.928 


027-028 


199.804 


199.804 


028-029 


83.462 


83.462 


029-030 


14.062 


14.062 


030-031 


-72.562 


-72.562 


031-032 


-129.096 


-129.096 


032-033 


-41.556 


-41.556 


033-034 


-23.244 


-23.244 


034-035 


220.943 


220.943 


035-036 


-131.512 


-131.512 


036-037 


110.185 


110.185 


037-038 


15.136 


15.136 


038-039 


78.302 


78.302 


039-040 


42.093 


42.093 


040-041 


-49.786 


-49.786 


041-042 


-16.304 


-16.304 


042-043 


-10.298 


-10.298 


043-044 


185.570 


185.570 


044-045 


-58.030 


-58.030 


045-046 


137.060 


137.060 


046-047 


-137.110 


-137.110 


047-048 


36.133 


36.133 


048-049 


80.490 


80.890 


049-050 


10.510 


10. 510 



108 



Station Intermediate 

Pair Total 5 

050-051 60.642 60.642 

051-052 257.513 257.513 

052-053 -5.802 -5.802 

053-054 122.895 122.895 

054-055 -234.712 -234.712 

055-056 271.226 271.266 

056-057 -70.603 -70.603 

057-058 -36.036 -36.036 

058-059 -89.106 -89.106 

059-060 217.004 217.004 

060-061 130.578 130.578 

061-062 -43.352 -43.352 

062-063 144.362 144.362 

063-064 182.507 182.507 

064-065 -35.930 -35.930 

065-066 189.470 189.470 

066-067 -50.863 -50.863 

067-068 527.735 527.735 

068-069 -281.222 -281.222 

069-070 -17.673 -17.673 

070-071 -104.921 -104.921 

071-072 -45.716 -45.716 

072-073 264.941 264.941 

073-074 -3.209 -3.209 

074-075 -138.545 -138.545 

075-076 -22.736 -22.736 

076-077 100.882 100.882 
077-078 

Total 2166.966 






109 










Mass Trans 


-port 43° 15 


.0 *S 










Deep/ 














Station 


Bottom 














Pair 


Total 


6 


7 




8 




9 


001-002 
















002-003 












/ 




003-004 


2.918 


1.972 


.946 










004-005 


-7.541 


-7.541 












005-006 


7.319 


7.319. 












006-007 


-4.738 


-1.632 


-1.115 


-1 


.000 


-0 


.991 


007-008 


-6.659 


-1.685 


-1.340 


-2 


.881 


-0 


.752 


008-009 


5.178 


1.142 


1.481 


2 


064 





.481 


009-010 


-0 .020 


-0 .241 


-0 .137 





.373 


-0 


.015 


010-011 


4.918 


1.019 


1.039 


1 


.872 





.989 


011-012 


-3.165 


-0.990 


-0 .786 


-0 


.250 


-1 


.139 


012-013 


-0.206 


.158 


0.038 


-0 


.234 


-0 


.169 


013-014 
















014-015 
















015-016 
















016-017 
















017-018 
















018-019 
















019-020 
















020-021 
















021-022 
















022-023 
















023-024 
















024-025 
















025-026 
















026-027 
















027-028 


0.171 


.171 












028-029 


.392 


.392 












029-030 


-1.375 


-1.375 












030-031 


0.711 


0.711 












031-032 


5.073 


.943 


.974 






3 


157 


032-033 


7.862 


2 .065 


1.217 


3 


178 


1 


403 


033-034 


-5.850 


-1.860 


-0 .977 


-1 


985 


-1 


028 


034-035 


5.882 


0.823 


.956 


2 


785 


1 


313 


035-036 


2.332 


-0 .349 


0.324 


1 


755 





603 


036-037 


0.993 


-0.157 


0.239 





.545 





366 


037-038 


-3.300 


-0.719 


-1.092 


-0 


734 


-0 


755 


038-039 


-2 .991 


-1.259 


-0 .777 


-0 


506 


-0 


449 


039-040 


0.991 


.482 


.077 





276 





156 


040-041 


-6 .139 


-2 .024 


-1.463 


-2 


181 


-0 


521 


041-042 


0.762 


. 361 


0.121 





279 






042-043 


0. 300 


.123 


0.291 





.386 






043-044 


-2 .556 


-0.626 


-0.800 


-1 


130 






044-045 


-7. 312 


0.001 


-2 .908 


-4 


.405 






045-046 


.432 


-1.039 


-0 . 334 


1 


855 






046-047 


6 .771 


1.027 


1.504 


4 


240 






047-043 


-0 .347 


0.121 


-0 .436 


-0 


482 






048-049 


.109 


-0 .067 


-0 .096 





272 







110 



Station 
Pair 



Deep/ 

Bottom 

Total 



049- 
050- 
051- 
052- 
053- 
054. 
055- 
056- 
057- 
058- 
059- 
060- 
061. 
062- 
063- 
064- 
065- 
066- 
067- 
068- 
069- 
070- 
071- 
072- 
073- 
074- 
075. 
076- 
077- 



-050 
-051 

• 052 

• 053 

• 054 

• 055 

• 056 

• 057 

• 058 

• 059 

• 060 

• 061 
•062 

• 063 
■064 

• 065 

• 066 

• 067 

• 068 

• 069 
-070 

• 071 
•072 

• 073 

• 074 

• 075 

• 076 

• 077 
-078 



-6. 

0. 

2. 
-4. 
-2. 

3, 
-4, 

1, 

1, 
-0 , 

1. 
-4, 

2 , 
-0 , 
-0 , 
-3. 

1, 
-0, 

0. 
-2 , 



0, 
-0 . 

-1. 

0. 
-0. 

1. 

. 



022 
457 
877 
714 
529 
775 
227 
125 
565 
047 
16 8 
211 
155 
520 
10 2 
579 
917 
181 
583 
719 
782 
508 
039 
321 
826 
908 
341 
287 



239 
031 
906 
625 
875 
303 
959 
125 
565 
047 
168 
801 
503 
372 
308 
132 
152 
102 
003 
719 
782 
361 
256 
562 
397 
312 
633 
287 



•2, 

0. 

1. 

-3. 

• 1. 
2, 

• 2. 



864 
184 
390 
089 
654 
472 
269 



298 

877 
,070 
.037 
.172 

768 
.079 

587 



147 
217 
760 
429 
596 
708 



8 

•1.918 
0.242 
.581 



■1. 

. 
-0, 

0, 
•1, 

0. 



112 
775 
079 
169 
275 
997 



Total 



-10 .838 



111 










Salt ' 


frans 


port 43° 15 


.0'S 










Deep/ 


















Station 


Bottom 


















Pair 


Total 


6 




7 




8 




9 




001-002 




















002-003 




















003-0014 


101.292 


68 


.442 


32 


.850 






/ 




004-005 


-261.756 


-261 


.756 














005-006 


254.134 


254 


.134 














006-007 


-164.513 


-56 


.641 


-38 


.745 


-34 


.700 


-34 


.426 


007-008 


-231.203 


-58 


.508 


-46 


.551. 


-100 


.029 


-26 


.116 


008-009 


179 .788 


39 


.648 


51 


.786 


71 


.658 


16 


.696 


009-010 


-0 .688 


-8 


.358 


-4 


.747 


12 


.947 


-0 


.531 


010-011 


170.745 


35 


.346 


36 


.078 


64 


.987 


34 


. 333 


011-012 


-109.857 


-34 


.334 


-27 


.300 


-8 


.662 


-39 


.561 


012-013 


-7.170 


5 


.490 


1 


.328 


-8 


.120 


-5 


.869 


013-011+ 




















014-015 




















015-016 




















016-017 




















017-018 




















018-019 




















019-020 




















020-021 




















021-022 




















022-023 




















023-024 




















024-025 




















025-026 




















026-027 




















027-028 


5.936 


5 


.936 














028-029 


13.589 


13 


539 














029-030 


-47.709 


-47 


709 














030-031 


24.660 


24 


.660 














031-032 


176 .132 


32 


686 


33 


815 






109 


6 31 


032-033 


272 .934 


71 


.638 


42 


273 


110 


. 318 


48 


707 


033-0 34 


-203.054 


-64 


533 


-33 


921 


-68 


888 


-35 


713 


034-035 


204.203 


28 


.557 


33 


206 


96 


669 


45 


771 


035-036 


81.006 


-12 


.097 


11 


252 


60 


.919 


20 


931 


036-037 


34.504 


-5 


431 


8 


288 


18 


926 


12 


721 


037-038 


-114.558 


-24 


947 


-37 


934 


-25 


467 


-26 


210 


038-039 


-103.765 


-43 


648 


-26 


984 


-17 


551 


-15 


581 


039-040 


34. 373 


16 


707 


2 


671 


9 


575 


5 


419 


040-041 


-214.759 


-70 


170 


-5 


791 


-75 


703 


-18 


095 


041-042 


26 .417 


12 


511 


4 


214 


9 


692 






042-043 


27. 730 


4 


257 


10 


115 


13 


408 






043-044 


-33.695 


-21 


689 


-27 


775 


-39 


221 






044-045 


-253.798 





041 


-100 


916 


-152 


924 






045-046 


16 .307 


-36 


000 


-11 


5 95 


64 


401 






046-047 


-234.980 


35 


609 


52 


181 


147 


190 






047-048 


-29 .422 


4 


185 


-16 


370 


-16 


737 






048-049 


3.780 


-2 


330 


-3 


316 


9 


426 







112 





Deep/ 














Station 


Bottom 














Pair 


Total 


6 




7 




8 




049-050 


-208.895 


-42 


940 


-99 


370 


-66 


585 


05Q-051 


15.874 


1 


076 


6 


395 


8 


403 


051-052 


99.768 


31 


382 


48 


211 


20 


176 


052-053 


-163.464 


-56 


.299 


-107 


165 






053-054 


-87.697 


-30 


325 


-57 


372 






054-055 


130 .914 


45 


172 


85 


741 






055-056 


-146 .575 


-67 


891 


-78 


684 






056-057 


38.996 


38 


996 










057-058 


54.256 


54 


256 










058-059 


-1.625 


-1 


625 










059-060 


40.475 


40 


475 




' 






060-061 


-146 .113 


-62 


438 


-45 


065 


-38 


610 


061-062 


74.760 


17 


449 


30 


426 


26 


886 


062-063 


-18.044 


-12 


.896 


-2 


416 


-2 


731 


063-064 


-3.525 


-10 


.665 


1 


282 


5 


858 


064-065 


-124.186 


-39 


.247 


-40 


.689 


-44 


251 


065-066 


66 .534 


5 


263 


26 


656 


34 


615 


066-067 


-6 .268 


-3 


.544 


-2 


.724 






067-068 


20 .236 


-0 


.119 


20 


.354 






068-069 


-94.239 


-94 


239 










069-070 


27.102 


27 


.102 










070-071 


17.614 


12 


.527 


5 


088 






071-072 


-1. 324 


-8 


.858 


7 


534 






072-073 


-45.315 


-19 


.466 


-26 


.349 






0.73-074 


23.654 


13 


.758 


14 


895 






074-075 


-31.473 


-1Q 


.803 


-20 


.671 






075-076 


46 .507 


21 


.953 


24 


554 






076-077 


9 .926 


9 


.926 










077-078 
















Total 


-375 .511 















113 














Heat Trans 


port 43° 15 


.0'S 












Deep/ 


















Station 


Bottom 


















Pair 


Total 


6 




7 




8 




9 




001- 


-002 






















002- 


-003 






















003- 


• 004 


802. 


,839 


542. 


.818 


260 , 


.021 






,' 




004- 


• 005 


-2075, 


,417 


-2075, 


,417 














005- 


-006 


2013. 


.921 


2013, 


.921 














006- 


-007 


-1301. 


.956 


-449. 


,215 


-306 , 


,515 


-274, 


.125 


-272 . 


.102 


007- 


-008 


-1828. 


.863 


-463. 


,850 


-368, 


,234 


-790 


.326 


-206 . 


.453 


008- 


-009 


1422. 


,347 


314. 


,528 


409 . 


,72 7 


566, 


.115 


131. 


.977 


009- 


-010 


-5. 


.794 


-66 , 


.328 


-37, 


.563 


102 


.292 


-4. 


.195 


010- 


-Oil 


1351, 


.058 


280, 


.502 


285, 


.576 


513. 


.529 


271. 


.450 


011- 


•012 


-869. 


.827 


-272, 


.548 


-216 , 


.105 


-68 


.445 


-312. 


.728 


012- 


-013 


-56. 


,446 


43, 


.588 


10 , 


.519 


-64. 


.163 


-46 


.390 


013- 


-014 






















014- 


-015 






















015- 


-016 






















016- 


-017 






















017- 


-018 






















018- 


-019 






















019- 


-020 






















020- 


-021 






















021- 


-022 






















022- 


-023 






















023- 


-024 






















024- 


-025 






















025- 


-026 






















026- 


-027 






















027- 


-028 


47, 


,246 


47 , 


,246 














028- 


-029 


108, 


.033 


108. 


.033 














029- 


-030 


-378, 


.454 


-378. 


.454 














030- 


-031 


195 , 


,516 


195. 


.516 














031- 


-032 


1393, 


.207 


259 . 


.483 


267. 


,594 






866 


.130 


032- 


-033 


2158, 


.650 


568, 


.402 


334. 


. 354 


871 


.057 


384 


.837 


033- 


-034 


-1606 , 


.615 


-512. 


.073 


-263, 


,312 


-544 


.031 


-282 


.199 


034- 


-035 


1614, 


.388 


266 . 


.522 


262, 


.695 


763. 


.466 


361, 


.705 


035- 


-036 


639, 


.520 


-96. 


.198 


89 , 


.043 


481. 


.224 


16 5. 


.446 


036- 


-037 


272. 


.486 


-43 


.145 


65, 


.570 


149. 


.525 


100 . 


.537 


037- 


-038 


-906. 


.618 


-198 


.032 


-300 . 


.213 


-201. 


.215 


-207. 


.159 


038- 


-039 


-321 


.997 


-346 


.577 


-213 


.586 


-138. 


.676 


-123 


.159 


039- 


-040 


272 


.388 


132 


.753 


21 


.136 


75 


.662 


42 . 


.837 


040- 


-041 


-1700 


.459 


-557 


.143 


-402 . 


.063 


-598 


.194 


-143 


.059 


041- 


-042 


209, 


.363 


99 


.392 


33. 


.381 


76 


.590 






042- 


-043 


219 


.851 


33 


.792 


80 . 


.091 


105 


.968 






043- 


-044 


-702 


.257 


-172 


.351 


-219 . 


.926 


-309 


.931 






044- 


-045 


-2007 


.232 





.363 


-798. 


.991 


-1208, 


.604 






045- 


-046 


131 


.017 


-286 


.042 


-91 


.935 


508 


.994 






046- 


-047 


1859 


.363 


282 


.769 


413 


.178 


1163 


.416 






047- 


-048 


-2 3 2 


.583 


33 


.314 


-133 


.573 


-132 


.323 






048- 


-049 


29 


.735 


-13 


.507 


-26 


.283 


74 


.525 







114 



Deep/ 

Station Bottom 

Pair Total 6 7 8 

049-050 -1654.737' -341.085 -787.111 -526.541 

050-051 125.656 8.539 50.648 66.470 

051-052 790.819 249.278 381.897 159.644 

052-053 -1296.164 -447.234 -848.930 

053-054 -695.316 -240.834 -454.482 

054-055 1038.002 358.766 679.236 

055-056 -1162.630 -539.093 -623.537 

056-057 309.491 309.491 

057-058 430.695 430.695 

058-059 -12.916 -12.916 

059-060 321.575 321.575 

060-061 -1157.760 -495.572 -356.789 -305.398 

061-062 592.057 138.569 240.944 212.544 

062-063 -143.128 -102.411 -19.137 -21.580 

063-064 -28.238 -84.713 10.148 46.327 

064-065 -983.341 -311.601 -322.104 -349.636 

065-066 526.160 41.713 211.012 273.436 

066-067 -49.713 -28.134 -21.579 

067-068 160.215 -0.955 161.170 

068-069 -748.361 -748.361 

069-070 215.251 215.251 

070-071 139.785 99.450 40.335 

071-072 -10.704 -70.427 59.723 

072-073 -363.380 -154.505 -208.875 

073-074 227.270 109.189 118.080 

074-075 -249.677 -85.795 -163.882 

075-076 368.917 174.278 194.639 

076-077 79.033 79.033 

077-078 

Total -2984.729 






115 



APPENDIX C 

GEOSTROPHIC POINT DEPTH CURRENT VELOCITIES 
Latitude 2 8° 15.0 r S 



Station 












Pair 


185/184 


184/183 


183/182 


182/181 


1817180 


Depth Cm) 




Units 


cm/sec 









-11.7 


-84.1 


-20.6 - 


52 .8 


-19.5 


100 


0.0 


-70 .0 


-19.9 


40.2 


-14.9 


250 




-34.3 


-11.3 


14.3 


-7.4 


500 




-8.3 


-1.8 


2.8 


-2.0 


762 




.0 


.0 


.0 


0.0 


1000 




4.7 


1.0 


.5 


-0.03 


2000 






13.0 


5.0 


1.9 


2500 








7.4 


4.2 


3000 








8.4 


6.3 


3500 








8.3 


8.0 


4000 








8.3 


8.6 


5000 














180/179 


179/178 


178/177 


177/176 







-2. 3 


-17.4 


5.5 


-0.2 




100 


-5 .7 


-16.6 


4.9 


-0.4 




250 


-2.5 


-10.5 


2.4 


.3 




500 


-1.0 


-2 .6 


1.2 


-0 .4 




762 


0.0 


.0 


.0 


0.0 




1000 


-0.3 


2.4 


-1.0 


0.4 




2000 


-0.6 


5.0 


-4.2 






2500 


-1.6 


5.4 








3000 


-2 .9 


6.1 








3500 


-3.0 










4000 


-2 .1 










5000 













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121 



Point Depth Geostrophic Velocities 
Latitude 43° 15.0 'S 



Station 












Pair 


001/002 


002/003 


003/004 


004/005 


005/00 


Depth(m) 




Units 


cm/sec 









8.1 


-14.5 


-14.3 


16.6 


-1.0 


100 


11.5 


-23.7 


-14.1 


16 .4 


-1.8 


250 




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14.8 


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500 




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12.9 


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1000 




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1203 


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2000 






3.1 


-7.2 


2.9 


2500 






4.6 


-8.4 


3.7 


3000 






4.4 







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0.4 


1.9 


-0.7 


-1.8 


-3.6 


3.2 


0.3 


1.5 


-0.9 


-0.9 


-3.9 


4.0 


0.5 


1.1 


-0.6 


-0 .6 


-3.5 


3.7 


0.7 


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-0.9 


-0.2 


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2.7 


0.2 


0.3 


-0. 3 


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-0 .3 


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0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


-0.3 


0.0 


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0.9 


-0.9 


1.0 


-0.2 


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-0.9 


1.1 


-1.2 


1.1 


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1.1 


-0.8 


1.2 


-1.4 


1.1 


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1.1 


-0.8 


1.0 


-1.7 


1.0 


0.2 


1.0 


-0.8 


0.9 


-1.8 


1.0 




0.9 


-0.8 



122 



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126 



APPENDIX D 

END POINT DATA 
Mass, Salt and Heat Transports 



28°15'S 
West End 



Cross Sectional Area , Qnn nnn 2 
r-n x. *. P4. a.' noc^ = 1,900,000 m 
(Beach to Station 185) ' ' 

Cross Sectional Area _ n _ nnn 2 

(Station 185-184) = 2,707,000 m 

Mass Transport _ _ on -, n 12 / 

(Station 185-184) = -°- 204 x 10 S m/sec 

Salt Transport 12 o. . 

(Station 185-184) ' ' ^ x iU /oo/sec 

fcf,- ran ??? r ? S u. = " 59 - 7 82 x 10 12 cal/sec 
(Station 185-184) 

Mass , Salt , Heat Mass , Salt , Heat Area (Beach-S185) 
(Beach-S185) (S185-S184) x Area (S185-S184) 

Mass Transport . n n ., _ nn 12 , 
(Beach-S185) 1 " °' 143 x 10 S m/sec 

rS^ ? r S???? rt : " 5-083 x 10 12 °/oo/sec 
(Beach-S185) — 

^ at ^ r ^P° rt < -41.960 x 10 12 cal/sec 
(Beach-S185) — 

East End 

Cross Sectional Area onr , nno 2 
(S86-Beach) ' 

Cross Sectional Area rrn nnf . 2 
(S87-S86) = 559,000 rn 

Mass Transport nno -,nl2 / 

(S087-S086) = - 002 X 10 § m/seC 

Salt Transport nrn , n 12 o, , 

(S087-S086) = - 069 X 10 /oo/sec 

Heat Transport r _ n in 12 , , 

(S087-S036') = - 573 X 10 cal/sec 



127 



Mass , Salt , Heat Mass , Salt , Heat Area (S86-Beach) 
(S86-Beach) (S87-S86) x Area (S87-S86) 

Mass Transport nn in 12 / 

(S86-Beach) 1 - 001 x 10 § m/sec 

Salt Transport „ no „ ,.12 o, , 

(S86-Beach) 1 '° 37 x 10 /oo/sec 

Heat Transport „ , n -, n 12 n . 

(S86-Beach) ± ' 310 x 10 cal/sec 

43°15'S 
West End 

Cross Sectional Area - nnn nnn 2 
(Beach-SOOl) = 3,000,000 m 

Cross Sectional Area „ -_ nnn 2 
(S001-S002) = 3 > 610 > 000 m 

Mass Transport _ n 12 . 

(S001-S002) " °- 248 X 10 S m/sec 

Salt Transport „„„ in 12 o, , 

(S001-S002) = 8 - 772 x 10 /oo/sec 

Heat Transport „. ._„ ,,,12 , , 

(S001-S002) = 71 - 664 x 10 cal/sec 

Mass , Salt , Heat Mass , Salt , Heat Area (Beach-SOOl) 
(Beach-SOOl) (S001-S002) X Area (S001-S002) 

Mass Transport . n onc -, n 12 , 

(Beach-SOOl) ± 0.206 x 10 gm/sec 

Salt Transport ^ „ onn , n 12 o, , 

(Beach-SOOl) 1 7 ' 290 x 10 /oo/sec 

^ 3 r ??n?^ rt 59.554 x 10 12 cal/sec 

(Beach-SOOl) — 

East End 

Cross Sectional Area _ hrm nnn 2 
(S078-Beach) = 7 ' 400 ' 00 ° m 

Cross Sectional Area c ncn nnn 2 
(S077-S078) = 5 ' 750 ' 000 m 



128 



Mass Transport n no , nn 12 , 

(S077-S078) " °-° 21 X 10 § m/seC 

Salt Transport n co „ nn 12 o, . 

(S077-S078) = °- 687 x 10 /oo/sec 

Heat Transport e noc -,nl2 , , 

(S077-S078) = 6 -° 26 X 10 = al / sec 

Mass , Salt , Heat Mass , Salt , Heat Area (S078-Beach) r 

(S87-Beach) " (S077-S078) X Area (S077-S078) 

Mass Transport _, n no „ in 12 , 

(S078-Beach) 1 °- 027 x 10 S m/sec - 

kn7« T p anS £? rt < 0-884 x 10 12 °/oo/sec 

(S078-Beach) — 

Kn7« T n anS ^ rt " 7 - 755 x 1q12 cal/sec 

(S078-Beach) — 



The end section values are assumed suspect in that the 
conditions of the closest station pair to the beach are 
assumed to continue to the shore. The transports are believed 
to be between 50% and 90% of the calculated values due to the 
unknown decrease in velocity toward the shore line which was 
not taken into account. These values have not been included 
in the overall transoceanic calculations . 



129 



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133 



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135 



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